Writing for Psychology International Edition 4th Edition by Mark L. Mitchell – Test Bank

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Writing for Psychology International Edition 4th Edition by Mark L. Mitchell – Test Bank

Chapter 1—What is Psychology?

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.The word psychology was derived from the Greek words psyche, meaning __________, and logos, meaning __________.

A.

mind…body

B.

word…study

C.

normal…abnormal

D.

mind…word

ANS:DREF:introductionOBJ:remembering

2.When asked a general question, a psychologist might reply, “It depends.” Why?

A.

So far, psychologists just don’t know very much.

B.

Few statements about psychology apply to all people, all the time.

C.

A psychologist wants to hear your answer first.

D.

The psychologist is stalling for time while thinking of an answer.

ANS:BREF:general points

OBJ: application and understanding

3.According to one study, what was the effect of holding a hot cup of coffee?

A.

People were quicker to become angry.

B.

People became more likely to rate someone’s personality as “warm.”

C.

People became more interested in a trip to a tropical country.

D.

People were able to answer correctly more questions about food and drinks.

ANS: B REF: general points OBJ: remembering

4.According to one study, what was the effect of red-letter instructions on the first page of a test?

A.

On average, students became more alert and attentive.

B.

On average, students finished the test more quickly.

C.

On average, students erased and changed more of their answers.

D.

On average, students got lower test scores.

ANS: D REF: general points OBJ: remembering

5.Why have psychologists made more progress in understanding sensation than emotion?

A.

It is easier to make accurate measurements in sensation.

B.

Psychologists find sensation more interesting.

C.

Research on emotion is more expensive.

D.

The answers concerning emotion are so obvious that no research is necessary.

ANS:AREF:general points

OBJ: application and understanding

6.According to the position known as determinism,

A.

after doing something, a person has an urge to engage in the opposite behavior.

B.

people can choose for themselves what kind of people they want to be.

C.

behavioral development depends equally on heredity and environment.

D.

behavior follows principles of cause and effect.

ANS: D REF: determinism OBJ: remembering (definition)

7.The philosophical position that every behavior has a cause is known as

A.

free will.

B.

determinism.

C.

hereditarianism.

D.

environmentalism.

ANS: B REF: determinism OBJ: remembering (definition)

8.What is meant by “determinism”?

A.

assumption that every event has a cause

B.

personality trait marked by persistence and effort

C.

belief that behavior is caused by a person’s conscious decisions

D.

view that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain

ANS: A REF: determinism OBJ: remembering (definition)

9.Someone who believes that all behaviors have a cause follows which philosophical position?

A.

hereditarianism

B.

environmentalism

C.

free will

D.

determinism

ANS: D REF: determinism OBJ: remembering (definition)

10.Which of these refers to the idea that every event, including our behavior, has a cause?

A.

determinism

B.

parsimony

C.

synesthesia

D.

replicability

ANS: B REF: determinism OBJ: remembering (definition)

11.People who support the concept of free will believe that

A.

heredity plays a critical role in the development of behavior.

B.

some choices go beyond the realm that science could study or predict.

C.

different parts of the brain control different types of behavior.

D.

behavior is basically predictable.

ANS: B REF: determinism OBJ: remembering (definition)

12.People who support the idea of free will OPPOSE the concept that

A.

the mind and brain are separate entities.

B.

people can sometimes change their opinions.

C.

all behaviors have causes that scientists can study.

D.

people have a conscious mind.

ANS: C REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

13.Someone who supports the position of determinism (as opposed to free will) believes that

A.

people can change their own behavior if they try hard enough.

B.

the development of behavior depends more on the environment than on genetics.

C.

every behavior has a cause.

D.

the only way to find out why people act as they do is simply to ask them.

ANS: C REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

14.Adherents of free will disagree with adherents of determinism with regard to whether behavior is

A.

useful

B.

inherited.

C.

persistent.

D.

predictable.

ANS: D REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

15.A psychologist who attempts to test the assumptions of determinism is most likely to investigate

A.

the role of heredity in the development of behavior.

B.

whether it is possible to predict behaviors.

C.

whether different parts of the brain have different functions in behavior.

D.

why certain people work harder to achieve their goals than other people do.

ANS: B REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

16.Which of the following (if true) would most seriously contradict the assumptions of determinism?

A.

Some behaviors are controlled mostly by heredity and others mostly by environment.

B.

Two parts of the brain control the same aspects of behavior.

C.

Some people with high motivation to succeed nevertheless fail.

D.

Certain behaviors are completely unpredictable.

ANS: D REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

17.A psychologist offers people three pairs of shoes and investigates whether their choices are predictable. The results are likely to be relevant to which of these issues?

A.

free will versus determinism

B.

the mind-brain problem

C.

the nature-nurture issue

D.

the ethics of behavior modification

ANS: A REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

18.According to adherents of determinism, why is it hard to predict people’s behavior accurately?

A.

People have a free will.

B.

Some behaviors have causes but others do not.

C.

Some behaviors have many complex causes.

D.

The experimental method is appropriate only for the physical sciences.

ANS: C REF: determinism OBJ: application and understanding

19.The mind-brain (or mind-body) problem refers to the question:

A.

Which is more important in controlling behavior, the mind or the brain?

B.

How is the mind related to the brain and does one control the other?

C.

What causes the mind to undergo “out-of-body” experiences?

D.

Which part of the mind controls the body?

ANS:BREF:mind-brainOBJ:remembering

20.What do psychologists and philosophers mean by the term mind-body question?

A.

“How does brain activity relate to mental activity?”

B.

“Which is stronger, the mind or the body?”

C.

“Is the mind aware of anything that goes on in the body?”

D.

“Do you mind what I do with your body?”

ANS:AREF:mind-brainOBJ:remembering

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