Window on Humanity A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 9th Edition by Conrad Kottak – Test Bank

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ISBN10: 1260071472ISBN13: 9781260071474
Author: Conrad Kottak
Publisher ‏ : ‎ McGraw Hill
Edition:9th

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Window on Humanity A Concise Introduction to General Anthropology 9th Edition by Conrad Kottak – Test Bank

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Kottak: Window on Humanity: A Concise Introduction to Cultural Anthropology, 9e

CHAPTER 1: What Is Anthropology?
CHAPTER 2: Culture
CHAPTER 3: Doing Anthropology
CHAPTER 4: Evolution, Genetics, and Human Variation
CHAPTER 5: The Primates
CHAPTER 6: Early Hominins
CHAPTER 7: The Genus Homo
CHAPTER 8: The First Farmers
CHAPTER 9: The First Cities and States
CHAPTER 10: Language and Communication
CHAPTER 11: Making a Living
CHAPTER 12: Political Systems
CHAPTER 13: Families, Kinship, and Marriage
CHAPTER 14: Gender
CHAPTER 15: Religion
CHAPTER 16: Ethnicity and Race
CHAPTER 17: Applying Anthropology
CHAPTER 18: The World System, Colonialism, and Inequality
CHAPTER 19: Anthropology’s Role in a Globalizing World

Chapter 01

What Is Anthropology?

1. What is anthropology?A. the art of ethnographyB. the study of the stages of social evolutionC. the study of long-term physiological adaptationD. the humanistic investigation of myths in nonindustrial societiesE. the study of humans around the world and through timeAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Define general anthropology.Topic: General Anthropology2. A holistic and comparative perspectiveA. is the hallmark of all social sciences, not just anthropology.B. refers only to the cultural aspects of human diversity that anthropologists study.C. most characterizes anthropology when compared to other disciplines that study humans.D. makes general anthropology superior to sociocultural anthropology.E. makes anthropology an interesting field of study, but too broad of one to apply to the real problems people face today.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability3. As humans organize their lives and adapt to different environments, our abilities to learn, think symbolically, use language, and employ tools and other productsA. are shared with other animals capable of organized group life—such as baboons, wolves, and even ants.B. rest on certain features of human biology that make culture, which is not itself biological, possible.C. prove that only fully developed adults have the capacity for culture; children lack the capacity for culture until they mature.D. have made some human groups more cultured than others.E. rest on certain features of human biology that make culture itself a biological phenomenon.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability4. Which of the following statements about culture is FALSE?A. Culture guides the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to it.B. Culture is passed on genetically to future generations.C. Culture is a key aspect of human adaptability and success.D. Cultural forces consistently mold and shape human biology and behavior.E. Culture is passed on from generation to generation.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability5. What is the process by which children learn a particular cultural tradition?A. ethnographyB. biological adaptationC. enculturationD. acculturationE. ethnologyAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability6. This chapter’s description of how humans cope with low oxygen pressure in high altitudes illustratesA. the need for anthropologists to pay more attention to human adaptation in extreme environments.B. how biological adaptations are effective only when they are genetic.C. how in matters of life or death, biology is ultimately more important than culture.D. how human plasticity has decreased ever since we embraced a sedentary lifestyle some 10,000 years ago.E. human capacities for cultural and biological adaptation, the latter involving both genetic and physiological adaptations.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability7. The presence of more efficient respiratory systems to extract oxygen from the air among human populations living at high elevations is an example of which form of adaptation?A. cultural adaptationB. short-term physiological adaptationC. long-term physiological adaptationD. genetic adaptationE. symbolic adaptationAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability8. Over time, humans have become increasingly dependent on which of the following in order to cope with the range of environments they have occupied in time and space?A. a holistic and comparative approach to problem solvingB. social institutions, such as the state, that coordinate collective actionC. technological means of adaptation, such as the creation of virtual worlds that allow us to escape from day-to-day realityD. biological means of adaptation, mostly thanks to advanced medical researchE. cultural means of adaptationAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability9. Today’s global economy and communications link all contemporary people, directly or indirectly, in the modern world system. People must now cope with forces generated by progressively larger systems—the region, the nation, and the world. For anthropologists studying contemporary forms of adaptation, why might this be a challenge?A. A more dynamic world system, with greater and faster movements of people across space, speeds up the process of evolution, making the study of genetic adaptations more difficult.B. Truly isolated indigenous communities, anthropology’s traditional and ongoing study focus, are becoming harder to find.C. Since cultures are tied to place, people moving around and connecting across space means the end of culture, and thus the end of anthropology.D. According to Marcus and Fischer (1986), “The cultures of world peoples need to be constantly rediscovered as these people reinvent them in changing historical circumstances.”E. Anthropological research tools do not work in this new modern world system, making their contributions less valuable.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability10. Which of the following perspectives emphasizes how cultural forces constantly mold human biology?A. psychological anthropological perspectiveB. holistic perspectiveC. cultural genetics perspectiveD. biocultural perspectiveE. scientific–humanistic perspectiveAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability11. What are the four subdisciplines of anthropology?A. archaeology, biological anthropology, applied linguistics, and applied anthropologyB. medical anthropology, ethnography, ethnology, and cultural anthropologyC. primatology, ethnology, cultural anthropology, and paleoscatologyD. biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeologyE. genetic anthropology, physical anthropology, psychological anthropology, and anthropology and linguisticsAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Define general anthropology.Topic: General Anthropology12. Anthropologists’ early interest in Native North AmericansA. was more important than interest in the relation between biology and culture in the development of U.S. four-field anthropology.B. is unique to European anthropology.C. is an important historical reason for the development of four-field anthropology in the U.S.D. proved early on that culture is a function of race.E. was replaced in the 1930s by the two-field approach.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Define general anthropology.Topic: General Anthropology13. How are the four subfields of U.S. anthropology unified?A.
Each subfield studies human genetic variation through time and space.B. The subfields are really not unified; their grouping into one discipline is a historical accident.C. Each subfield studies the human capacity for language.D. Each subfield studies human variation through time and space.E. Each subfield studies human biological variability.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology14. What is one of the most fundamental key assumptions that anthropologists share?A. We can draw conclusions about human nature by studying a single society.B. There are no universals, so cross-cultural research is bound to fail.C. Anthropologists cannot agree on what anthropology is, much less share key assumptions.D. A degree in philosophy is the best way to produce good ethnographies.E. A comparative, cross-cultural approach is essential to study the human condition.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology15. Cultural anthropologists carry out their fieldwork inA. the third world.B. factories.C. former colonies.D. the tropics.E. all kinds of societies.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology16. Ethnography is theA. generalizing aspect of cultural anthropology.B. cross-cultural comparative component of cultural anthropology.C. preliminary data that sociologists use to develop survey research.D. fieldwork component of cultural anthropology.E. study of biological adaptability.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology17. Based on Franz Boas’s observation that contact between neighboring tribes has existed since humanity’s beginnings and covered enormous areas, it can be argued thatA. biology, not culture, was responsible for the vast majority of human diversity.B. language must have originated among the Neandertals.C. general anthropologists were wrong to focus too much attention on biology.D. cultures should not be treated as isolated phenomena.E. even the earliest foragers engaged in warfare.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology18. What component of cultural anthropology is comparative and focused on building upon our understanding of how cultural systems work?A. data collectionB. ethnologyC. fieldworkD. data entryE. ethnographyAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology19. Archaeologists studying sunken ships off the coast of Florida and analyzing the content of modern garbage are examples of howA. Hollywood has popularized archaeology in recent movies, making it a popular college major.B. archaeology is free from having to worry about the impact of its work on people.C. archaeology is going through an identity crisis, with its practitioners questioning the discipline’s focus on studying prehistory.D. archaeologists study the culture of historical and even living peoples.E. training in the use of research skills for extreme environments—such as landfills and the deep sea—are worth the time, resources, and risk for the sake of the anthropological knowledge gained.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology20. Which of the following best describes biological anthropology?A. the study of human biological diversityB. the study of public healthC. the study of biology through material remainsD. the study of language and linguistic diversityE. the study of biological and cultural approaches to a given problemAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology21. Primatology is a specialty withinA. applied anthropology.B. cultural anthropology.C. biological anthropology.D. anthropological archaeology.E. linguistic anthropology.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology22. Linguistic anthropologyA. includes cultural anthropology and paleoecology.B. relies heavily on the methods of phrenology.C. is a research strategy of biological anthropologists studying the emergence of language among nonhuman primates.D. has securely dated the origin of hominid language.E. includes sociolinguistics, historical linguistics, and linguistic variation.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology23. The American Anthropological Association has formally acknowledged a public service role by recognizing that anthropology has which two dimensions?A. ethnology and public ethnographyB. academic anthropology and applied anthropologyC. cultural resource management and medical anthropologyD. private anthropology and public anthropologyE. applied anthropology and practicing anthropologyAccessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Identify the work of applied anthropologists.Topic: Applied Anthropology24. Applied anthropologyA. encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical problems.B. is a European phenomenon.C. has yet to be recognized by the American Anthropological Association.D. focuses on preparing emerging academic scholars to improve their grant application skills.E. originated at the same time that anthropology’s four-field approach became established among early 20th-century U.S. academics.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Identify the work of applied anthropologists.Topic: Applied Anthropology25. During a massive construction project, a city came across a treasure trove of archeological sites under its streets. It decided to call in an expert to help decide what needed to be saved and how to preserve information about what was not saved. This expert’s role is best described asA. biological anthropology.B. sociological anthropology.C. historic preservation.D. cultural resource management.E. sociolinguistics.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Identify the work of applied anthropologists.Topic: Applied Anthropology26. Anthropology is a science, yet it has been suggested that anthropology is among the most humanistic of all academic fields. This is becauseA. it puts so much emphasis on the study of culture that cannot be studied scientifically.B. the field, particularly in the Unit
ed States, traces its origins to philosophy and literature.C. its main object of study is humans.D. its findings are best expressed with the tools of the humanities.E. of its fundamental respect for human diversity.Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Summarize why anthropology is considered a social science.Topic: Anthropology and Other Academic Fields27. Anthropologists study only non-Western cultures.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability28. Humans can adapt to their surroundings through both biological and cultural means.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability29. Culture is not itself biological but rests on certain features of human biology.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability30. Adaptation refers to the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses, such as those posed by climate and topography.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability31. Anthropologists agree that a comparative, cross-cultural approach is unnecessary as long as researchers are diligent in their work.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Define general anthropology.Topic: General Anthropology32. Ethnography involves the collection of data used to create an account of a particular community, society, or culture.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology33. Ethnomusicology is one of the four main subfields of anthropology.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology34. Archaeologists study only prehistoric communities.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology35. Biological anthropologists study only human bones.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology36. As an academic discipline, anthropology has links to both the social sciences and the humanities.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Summarize why anthropology is considered a social science.Topic: Anthropology and Other Academic Fields37. The differences between sociology and cultural anthropology are becoming increasingly distinct.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology38. Applied anthropology encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve theoretical problems.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Identify the work of applied anthropologists.Topic: Applied Anthropology39. Anthropological archaeology reconstructs, describes, and interprets human behavior and cultural patterns through anecdotal records passed through the generations.FALSE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology40. Archaeologists may infer cultural transformations by observing changes in the size and type of sites and the distance between them.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology.Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology41. The forces of globalization and industrial production link all contemporary people, directly or indirectly, in the modern world system.TRUE

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability42. This chapter begins with a commonly heard opinion: “People are pretty much the same all over the world.” Why is this assumption often wrong? How might your consideration of this understanding affect how you would design an anthropological study?

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology offers a unique cross-cultural perspective.Topic: The Cross-Cultural Perspective43. What is culture? How do anthropologists define and study culture?

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability44. What does holism refer to? Why is the concept central to anthropology? How does this concept relate to the “four-field” approach within the discipline? Have you encountered this concept in any of your other classes?

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability45. This chapter provides an example of human adaptation to high altitude to illustrate the various forms of cultural and biological adaptation. Can you think of another example that illustrates the broad capacity of humans to adapt both biologically and culturally?

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability46. To what does biocultural perspective refer? If you are planning to major in the biological sciences or planning a career as a medical doctor or clinical researcher, how might a minor in anthropology complement your education? If you are thinking of majoring in the humanities, how might a minor in anthropology complement your education?

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition.Topic: Human Adaptability47. This chapter considers differences and similarities between anthropology and other academic fields such as sociology. What about history?

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Summarize why anthropology is considered a social science.Topic: Anthropology and Other Academic Fields48. In this chapter, Christine Finnan’s research regarding the Kalinga Institute of Social Sciences is used to illustrate the difference between applied and academic anthropology. Describe theories, associations, and explanations, using her research as an example.

Answers will vary.

Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationLearning Objective: Summarize why anthropology is considered a social science.Topic: Anthropology and Other Academic Fields

Category # of Questions

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 48

Learning Objective: Define general anthropology. 4

Learning Objective: Describe how anthropology describes the whole of the human condition. 18

Learning Objective: Describe how anthropology offers a unique cross-cultural perspective. 1

Learning Objective: Identify the work of applied anthropologists. 4

Learning Objective: List the four subfields of anthropology and distinguish between ethnography and ethnology. 17

Learning Objective: Summarize why anthropology is considered a social science. 4

Topic: Anthropology and Other Academic Fields 4

Topic: Applied Anthropology 4

Topic: General Anthropology 4

Topic: Human Adaptability 18

Topic: The Cross-Cultural Perspective 1

Topic: The Subdisciplines of Anthropology 17

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