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What is Psychology International Edition 3rd Edition by Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

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What is Psychology International Edition 3rd Edition by Ellen E. Pastorino – Test Bank

Chapter 1—What Is Psychology?

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Psychology is defined as the

a.

scientific study of why people do what they do.

b.

scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

c.

study of the unconscious determinants of personality.

d.

study of mental illness and its treatment.

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 3 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

2. Considering the definition of psychology, which of the following individuals is most likely a psychologist?

a.

Kinsley, who studies the behavioral characteristics of highly intelligent people

b.

Jonas, who “reads” people’s palms and foretells their futures

c.

Elina, who is investigating a new treatment for skin cancer

d.

Mitchell, who dispenses advice to others based on his own personal experiences

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 3 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Applied

3. Psychologists study the behavior of

a.

rats.

b.

humans.

c.

monkeys.

d.

all of these choices.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 3 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

4. Psychologists study

a.

humans who have mental  health problems only.

b.

animals only.

c.

humans only.

d.

humans and animals.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 3 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

5. A common misconception that people have about psychology is that

a.

it is a science.

b.

more than half of all psychologists are involved in the counseling or treatment of clients.

c.

most psychologists hold advanced degrees.

d.

psychologists usually only study abnormal behavior.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate REF: 5 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE:  Factual

6. Psychology is

a.

an extremely diverse field with new specialties appearing each year.

b.

a fairly narrow field with a primary focus on mental illness.

c.

so broad and diverse that it would be impossible to determine any special areas of emphasis.

d.

limited primarily to studying animals and humans in laboratory settings.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 5 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

7. Which of the following statements is false?

a.

Psychology is a pseudoscience.

b.

Psychologists have developed many theories of behavior but are often unable to explain exactly why a person may do something.

c.

Psychology includes many different specialty areas.

d.

Psychology utilizes the scientific method.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 5-6 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

8. Maheen is a professional within the field of psychology.  It is most likely that she

a.

did not have to study scientific methodology.

b.

has completed a considerable amount of research.

c.

is primarily concerned with giving people advice.

d.

does not have a doctoral degree.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate REF: 5-6 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Applied

9. Which of the following is not a myth that is commonly held about psychology?

a.

Psychology is mostly about the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.

b.

Psychology is merely common sense.

c.

Psychological theories cannot be used to explain the particular behaviors of all people.

d.

Psychology doesn’t conduct any true scientific studies.

ANS: C DIF: Difficult REF: 5-6 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Conceptual

10. Critical thinking about psychological information is important because it helps

a.

in analyzing concepts and applying them to other situations.

b.

to determine the difference between pseudoscience and science.

c.

us be intelligent consumers of the vast amount of information to which we are exposed.

d.

all of these choices

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 6 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Conceptual

11. Your best friend has signed up for a psychology class, but she doesn’t really know what to expect from this course. You want to help her by explaining what psychology is. What should you tell her?

a.

Psychology is about giving people advice.

b.

Psychology is easy. It’s just common sense.

c.

Psychology is the study of mental illness.

d.

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

ANS: D DIF: Easy REF: 3-6 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Applied

12. Psychologists attempt to understand behavior and mental processes by

a.

using the scientific method.

b.

thinking deeply about the reasons for our behavior.

c.

using common sense to understand why we do what we do.

d.

studying the behavior of people with mental illnesses.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 3 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Conceptual

13. Tom just saw the movie, A Beautiful Mind. As a result of viewing this movie, Tom now feels that he has a good understanding of what psychology is all about. Based on your reading, which of the following statements about Tom’s belief is most likely to be true?

a.

Tom is wrong. A movie cannot teach you anything about psychology.

b.

Tom is correct. Hollywood movies tell the story of psychology very accurately.

c.

Tom is partially correct. Hollywood’s depiction of psychology is often only partially correct.

d.

Tom is lying. He never saw A Beautiful Mind. This movie has nothing to do with psychology.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 3 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Applied

14. Fatima is a psychologist.  Based on your reading, which of the following assumptions about Fatima is most likely to be true?

a.

She is a therapist.

b.

She has a doctoral degree.

c.

She studies animal behavior.

d.

She studies mental illness.

ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:16-17

OBJ: What Is Psychology Like Today? KEY: WWW MSC: TYPE:  Applied

15. Which of the following is something that psychology cannot do?

a.

Tell us whether or not baby Marla will like spinach better than squash.

b.

Predict what type of person is likely to favor spinach over squash.

c.

Tell us whether or not people who like spinach will also tend to enjoy squash.

d.

Psychology can do all of these!

ANS: A DIF: Difficult REF: 6 OBJ: What Is Psychology

MSC: TYPE:  Applied

16. Which of the following questions would psychologists be most likely to ask?

a.

What causes the dollar to increase in value?

b.

Why are weather patterns changing across the world?

c.

Why are some people smarter than others?

d.

What chemicals are found in the plants of the rainforest?

ANS: C DIF: Easy REF: 5 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Applied

17. The belief that people only use 10% of their brains has been found by researchers to be

a.

not true.

b.

true.

c.

true for females, but not males.

d.

true for children, but not adults.

ANS: A DIF: Easy REF: 6 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

18. A theory is a(n)

a.

opinion that has no supporting facts.

b.

prediction of some future event.

c.

explanation of why and how a behavior occurs.

d.

method for testing hypotheses.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate REF: 5 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

19. Psychology is best described as a

a.

theory.

b.

science.

c.

pseudoscience.

d.

hypothesis

ANS: B DIF: Easy REF: 5 OBJ: What Is Psychology?

MSC: TYPE:  Conceptual

20. If Wilhelm Wundt were alive today, he would most likely be considered a

a.

cognitive psychologist.

b.

behaviorist.

c.

psychoanalytic theorist.

d.

biological psychologist.

ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:8, 12

OBJ: How Did Psychology Become a Science? The Origins of Psychology

MSC: TYPE:  Conceptual

21. Psychology began to be a separate field of scientific study in

a.

1653.

b.

1776.

c.

1879.

d.

1928.

ANS:CDIF:EasyREF:8

OBJ: How Did Psychology Become a Science? The Origins of Psychology

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

22. What is meant by the phrase, “Psychology has a long past, but a short history”?

a.

Although many negative events have characterized psychology’s past, many positive events have occurred in recent years.

b.

People have always been interested in explaining behavior, but psychology did not become a science until relatively recently.

c.

Psychology has been a science for hundreds of years, but only recently has the general public become interested in it.

d.

Although psychology has existed as a science for a very long time, it is being overshadowed by more exact sciences and will likely not survive much beyond the current century.

ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:7

OBJ: How Did Psychology Become a Science? The Origins of Psychology

MSC: TYPE:  Conceptual

23. Psychology became a distinct scientific field of study when

a.

Hippocrates studied the body’s chemicals around 400 B.C.

b.

ancient philosophers such as Aristotle studied sleep around 300 B.C.

c.

Descartes and others debated the connection between the mind and body in the early 1600s.

d.

Wilhelm Wundt established a laboratory to study the mind in the late 1800s.

ANS:DDIF:EasyREF:7-8

OBJ: How Did Psychology Become a Science? The Origins of Psychology

MSC: TYPE:  Factual

24. Which of the following individuals would most appropriately be described as a psychologist?

a.

A prehistoric cave dweller is attempting to understand the motivations of another cave dweller.

b.

A Greek philosopher is discussing the connection between mind and body.

c.

A laboratory researcher is studying the conscious elements of sensory experiences.

d.

A biologist is examining the physical basis for HIV.

ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:7-8

OBJ: How Did Psychology Become a Science? The Origins of Psychology

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