Test Bank For Theories of Personality 9Th Edition By Jess Feist

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ISBN-13: 978-0077861926 SBN-10: 0077861922

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Test Bank For Theories of Personality 9Th Edition By Jess Feist

Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Personality Theory
CHAPTER 2 Freud: Psychoanalysis
CHAPTER 3: Adler: Individual Psychology
CHAPTER 4: Jung: Analytical Psychology
CHAPTER 5: Klein: Object Relations Theory
CHAPTER 6: Horney: Psychoanalytic Social Theory
CHAPTER 7: Erikson: Post-Freudian Theory
CHAPTER 8: Fromm: Humanistic Psychoanalysis
CHAPTER 9: Maslow: Holistic-Dynamic Theory
CHAPTER 10: Rogers: Person-Centered Theory
CHAPTER 11: May: Existential Psychology
CHAPTER 12: Allport: Psychology of the Individual
CHAPTER 13: McCrae and Costa’s Five Factor Trait Theory
CHAPTER 14: Eysenck’s Biologically Based Factor Theory
CHAPTER 15: Buss: Evolutionary Theory of Personality
CHAPTER 16: Skinner: Behavioral Analysis
CHAPTER 17: Bandura: Social Cognitive Theory
CHAPTER 18: Rotter and Mischel: Cognitive Social Learning Theory
CHAPTER 19: Kelly: Psychology of Personal Constructs
Glossary
References R
Photo Credits C
Name Index N-1
Subject Index S-1

Chapter 03

Adler: Individual Psychology

1. Differentiate the striving for superiority and the striving for success in Alfred Adler’s theory of personality.

Answer:

A. Originally, Alfred Adler spoke of the striving for superiority as the final goal for all people, but after he placed emphasis on social interest, he made a distinction between striving for superiority and striving for success.

B. In Alfred Adler’s final theory, the striving for superiority was seen as an attempt to gain personal superiority over other people. As such, it is pathological and devoid of a high level of social interest. For example, a person may give money to a street beggar to convey a message of superiority over the beggar.

C. After Alfred Adler began to see the importance of social interest, he talked about striving for success, which he defined as success for all humanity. The striving for success is thus motivated by a high level of social interest and not by personal gain. A person who strives for success may give money to a street beggar out of interest in the beggar as part of humanity. A person with high social interest would genuinely care about the beggar and may extend that care beyond merely giving money.Page: 76–78

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation2. Describe the role of subjective perceptions in Alfred Adler’s theory of personality.

Answer:

A. To Alfred Adler, objective reality (such as a deformed hand) does not determine style of life; rather, style of life is shaped by one’s view of reality.

B. People are motivated more by fictions, or expectations of the future, than by experiences of the past. Fictions influence people as if they really existed. Expectations of the future reflect the concept of teleology and are opposed to the influence of past events, which emphasizes causality.

C. Alfred Adler believed that people are “blessed” by organ inferiorities. The inferiority itself does not determine the direction of a person’s striving, but one’s view of one’s inferiority can lead to either healthy or unhealthy striving.Page: 79–80

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation3. List and describe three Adlerian safeguarding tendencies.

Answer:

A. Safeguarding tendencies take the form of neurotic symptoms and are designed to protect an inflated self-image against public disgrace.

B. The most common of Adlerian safeguarding tendencies are excuses, and these can take the form of either the “Yes, but” excuse or the “If only” excuse. With either excuse, a person is attempting to protect a real sense of self-worth by deceiving other people into believing that he or she is a worthy person.

C. A second safeguarding tendency is aggression, which may take the form of depreciation, accusation, or self-accusation.

In all three cases, a person aggresses against others or self in order to gain personal superiority.

D. The third safeguarding tendency is to withdraw, or run away from life’s difficulties. People can withdraw by (1) moving backward; (2) standing still, which avoids responsibility for growing up; (3) hesitating, which gives people the excuse that “It’s too late now”; and (4) constructing obstacles so that they can demonstrate their superiority by overcoming the obstacle.Page: 87–89

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation4. Unlike Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalysis, Alfred Adler’s individual psychology assumed that:

A. behavior is shaped by past experiences.

B. people are motivated largely by aggression.

C. people are mostly responsible for their personalities.

D. most behaviors are motivated by unconscious forces.

E. the sexual instinct is the basis for most human behavior.

Page: 71

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5. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler believed that

A. people are motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority and success.

B. people have little or no choice in shaping their personality.

C. present behavior is caused by past experiences.

D. psychologically healthy people are usually unaware of what they are doing and why they are doing it.

Page: 71

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6. What did Alfred Adler’s earliest memories concern?

A. comparisons with his older and healthier brother

B. an active interest in helping others

C. neglect by his mother

D. his desire to become a famous psychologistPage: 72

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation7. The death of Alfred Adler’s younger brother resulted in Alfred Adler

A. withdrawing from other family members.

B. developing severe childhood neurosis.

C. deciding to become a doctor.

D. turning to his older brother for protection.

Page: 72

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 8. From Alfred Adler’s biography, we know that he

A. came from a Jewish background.

B. had a younger brother who died in infancy.

C. was second born.

D. None of the answers is correct.

E. All of the answers are correct.

Page: 72

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 9. Alfred Adler’s break with Sigmund Freud was due to the fact that

A. Sigmund Freud believed that psychoanalysis should change to keep up with society.

B. Alfred Adler was extremely deferent to Sigmund Freud.

C. Alfred Adler could not accept Sigmund Freud’s strong emphasis on sexual factors as motivators of behavior.

D. Sigmund Freud lacked organizational skills, leaving Alfred Adler with the responsibility of directing the Wednesday Psychological Society.Page: 73–74

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 10. During the time that Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler were members of the Wednesday Psychological Society,

A. Alfred Adler considered Sigmund Freud to be his mentor.

B. Sigmund Freud prevented Alfred Adler from holding office in the organization.

C. they shared a warm personal relationship.

D. they conspired to prevent Carl Jung from joining the organization.

E. None of the answers is correct.Page: 73–74

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation11. Which of the following was the effect of World War I on Alfred Adler?

A. He enlisted in the army.

B. He became a conscientious objector.

C. He changed his theoretical views.

D. He moved to a neutral country.Page: 74

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation12. Unlike other psychiatrists of his time, Alfred Adler treated

A. large numbers of schizophrenics.

B. children with intellectual disability.

C. patients without medical insurance.

D. large numbers of middle-and lower-class patients.Page: 75

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation13. One of Alfred Adler’s strongest beliefs was in

A. the equality of the sexes.

B. his Jewish faith.

C. his Protestant faith.

D. the communist doctrine.Page: 75

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation14. Which of the following assumptions is not part of Alfred Adler’s theory?

A. All human motivations for behavior are unconscious in origin.

B. The dynamic force behind a person’s activity is the striving for superiority or success.

C. All psychological phenomena are unified within an individual in a self-consistent manner.

D. The opinions of people shape their behavior and personality.Page: 75

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation15. According to Alfred Adler, _____ is the dynamic force motivating all human activity.

A. organ dialect

B. a feeling of superiority

C. the striving for success

D. inferior physical endowmentPage: 75

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16. Alfred Adler believed that behavior and personality are shaped by

A. early childhood experiences.

B. organ inferiorities.

C. subjective perceptions.

D. sexual and aggressive impulses.

E. birth order.Page: 75

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation17. Alfred Adler believed that there are two general routes by which people strive. One is the path of exaggerated personal superiority and the other is the road of

A. power.

B. masculine protest.

C. social interest.

D. individuation.

E. aggression.Page: 76

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation18. According to Alfred Adler, the goal toward which a psychologically healthy person strives is

A. fictional, with no objective existence.

B. the creation of one’s conscious thought.

C. largely conscious or known to that person.

D. shaped mostly by the person’s birth order.

E. All of the answers are correct.

Page: 76

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19. Alfred Adler felt that every individual is striving to reach the same goal of

A. self-fulfillment.

B. a perfect society.

C. superiority or success.

D. reduction of anxiety.

Page: 76

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20. In the context of the striving force as compensation, Alfred Adler believed that the tendency toward completion or wholeness

A. was a result of birth order.

B. was innate but needed to be developed.

C. was learned during preadolescence.

D. resulted from the masculine protest.

Page: 77

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21. Alfred Adler believed that people strive for superiority

A. in order to compensate for feelings of inferiority.

B. in order to survive in a competitive society.

C. as a means of attaining sexual satisfaction.

D. in an attempt to imitate parents and other authority figures.

Page: 77

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22. Concerning feelings of inferiority, Alfred Adler held that

A. all individuals possess them.

B. only neurotics develop them.

C. they always lead to the development of social interest.

D. they only develop when organ inferiorities are present.

Page: 77

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23. Alfred Adler said that all humans are “blessed” at birth with

A. a well-developed sense of social interest.

B. small, weak, incomplete, and inferior bodies.

C. superior intellects.

D. the need to become superior to other people.

Page: 77

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24. Alfred Adler referred to ideas that have no real existence yet influence people as if they really existed as

A. delusions.

B. hallucinations.

C. fictions.

D. hypothetical constructs.

E. objective certainty.

Page: 79

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25. Alfred Adler borrowed his ideas on fictionalism from

A. Sigmund Freud.

B. Karl Marx.

C. John Calvin.

D. Hans Vaihinger.

Page: 79

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26. In the context of Adlerian theory of individual psychology, which of the following statements is true about social interest?

A. It develops early in the mother-child relationship.

B. It is characteristic of all people to some degree.

C. It is the English translation of Gemeinschaftsgefühl.

D. All of the answers are correct.

E. None of the answers is correct.

Page: 79

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27. According to Alfred Adler, which of the following statements is true about organ inferiorities?

A. They cause the development of inferior personalities.

B. They cause the development of superior personalities.

C. They are important as they stimulate feelings of inferiority.

D. They are important because they bestow purpose on all behavior.

Page: 79–80

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28. Which of the following statements is true from an Adlerian perspective?

A. All behaviors are inconsistent.

B. Psychological conflict leads to inconsistent behavior.

C. Inconsistent behavior serves multiple purposes.

D. Inconsistent behavior serves a single purpose.

Page: 80

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29. Jared develops a tension headache while trying to meet a deadline at work. This tactic allows him to escape responsibility for meeting the deadline and to receive sympathy from his boss and coworkers. According to Alfred Adler, Jared’s headache is an example of

A. an organ dialect.

B. an organ inferiority.

C. an as-if illness.

D. a fiction.

Page: 80

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30. According to Alfred Adler, which of the following statements is true about social interest?

A. It exists in every individual to some degree.

B. It exists only in psychologically healthy people.

C. It requires personal gain by an individual.

D. It is much stronger in pampered children than in neglected ones.

Page: 81

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