Test Bank For Theories of Personality 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz

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Test Bank For Theories of Personality 11th Edition by Duane P. Schultz

Chapter 3—Carl Jung: Analytical Psychology

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1.Jung’s view of personality differs from Freud’s in that Jung:

a.

placed an even greater emphasis on the unconscious.

b.

emphasized social factors in personality.

c.

considered human nature to be shaped solely by future goals.

d.

placed more emphasis on sex.

ANS: A

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Introduction

REF: 82

FEEDBACK: A significant point of difference between Jung’s view and Freud’s view of personality revolved around the unconscious. Rather than minimizing the role of the unconscious Jung placed an even greater emphasis on it than Freud did. He probed more deeply into the unconscious and added an entirely new dimension: the inherited experiences of all human and even prehuman species.

2.Jung’s theory is concerned with:

a.

inherited primal experiences.

c.

consciousness, much more than Freud’s.

b.

the development of social relationships.

d.

past events, not future aspirations.

ANS: A

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Introduction

REF: 82

FEEDBACK: He probed more deeply into the unconscious and added an entirely new dimension: the inherited experiences of all human and even prehuman species. Although Freud had recognized the influence of inherited primal experiences, Jung made it the core of his system of personality.

3.Carl Jung’s childhood experiences included:

a.

a typically happy and peaceful Swiss family life.

b.

the attention and adoration of a young and attractive mother.

c.

a life of ease based on his father’s success in business.

d.

personal loneliness plus the marital conflicts and mental instability of his parents.

ANS: D

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: The Life of Jung (1875–1961)

REF: 82

FEEDBACK: Jung’s difficult and unhappy childhood years were marked by deaths and funerals, neurotic parents in a failing marriage, religious doubts and conflicts, bizarre dreams and visions, and a wooden doll for his only companion. Although kind and tolerant, Jung’s father experienced periods of moodiness and irritability and failed to be the strong authority figure his son needed. Jung’s mother was by far the more powerful parent, but her emotional instability led her to behave erratically.

4.Jung’s early life was characterized by:

a.

a secure relationship with his parents.

b.

religious doubts and conflicts and bizarre dreams and visions.

c.

a high degree of self-confidence and an intense ambition to succeed.

d.

parents who held extremely strict religious views and emphasized the virtue of hard work.

ANS: B

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: The Life of Jung (1875–1961)

REF: 82

FEEDBACK: Jung’s difficult and unhappy childhood years were marked by deaths and funerals, neurotic parents in a failing marriage, religious doubts and conflicts, bizarre dreams and visions, and a wooden doll for his only companion.

5.Jung’s theory of personality differs sharply from Freud’s concerning the:

a.

role of unconscious.

c.

understanding of dreams.

b.

early childhood experiences.

d.

inner growth of an individual.

ANS: D

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: The Life of Jung (1875–1961)

REF: 83

FEEDBACK: Jung’s loneliness is reflected in his theory, which focuses on the inner growth of the individual rather than on relationships with other people. In contrast, Freud’s theory is concerned more with interpersonal relationships, perhaps because Freud, unlike Jung, did not have such an isolated and introverted childhood.

6.Jung broke from Freud’s concepts because:

a.

he decided to follow his own ideas and viewpoints on personality.

c.

Jung had no contact with Freud on a regular basis.

b.

Freud was Jewish and Jung was a non-Jew.

d.

he placed far more importance to sexuality in shaping personality than Freud did.

ANS: A

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: The Life of Jung (1875–1961)

REF: 84

FEEDBACK: Jung had his own ideas and unique view of the human personality, and when he began to express these notions to Freud, it became inevitable that they would part. They severed their relationship in 1913.

7.How did Carl Jung overcome his neurotic disturbance, which later influenced his theory of personality?

a.

By confronting with his conscious mind

b.

Through the exploration of his dreams and fantasies

c.

By laboratory experiments in psychology

d.

Through word-association tests

ANS: B

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: The Life of Jung (1875–1961)

REF: 85

FEEDBACK: Jung overcame his neurotic disturbance by confronting his unconscious through the exploration of his dreams and fantasies. Out of Jung’s confrontation with his unconscious he fashioned his approach to personality. Jung established his theory on an intuitive base, which derived from his personal experiences and dreams.

8.Identify an area of disagreement between Jung and Freud.

a.

The existence of homosexuality

c.

The importance of dreams

b.

The existence of the unconscious

d.

The nature of libido

ANS: D

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86

FEEDBACK: One of the first points on which Jung disagreed with Freud involved the nature of libido.

Jung did not believe that libido was primarily a sexual energy; he argued instead that it was a broad, undifferentiated life energy.

9.Jung considered libido as:

a.

a broader and more generalized form of psychic energy.

b.

the primitive and carnal desires inherent in all individuals.

c.

an individual’s urge to engage in sexual activity.

d.

a series of developmental stages within an individual.

ANS: A

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86

FEEDBACK: To Jung, libido meant a broader and more generalized form of psychic energy. Jung did not believe that libido was primarily a sexual energy; he argued instead that it was a broad, undifferentiated life energy.

10.What is the term given by Carl Jung for “personality”?

a.

Ego

c.

Persona

b.

Psyche

d.

Libido

ANS: B

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86

FEEDBACK: Jung used the term libido in two ways: first, as a diffuse and general life energy, and second, from a perspective similar to Freud’s, as a narrower psychic energy that fuels the work of the personality, which he called the psyche. It is through psychic energy that psychological activities such as perceiving, thinking, feeling, and wishing are carried out.

11.All of the following are principles explain the functioning of psychic energy except _____.

a.

differentiation principle

c.

equivalence principle

b.

opposition principle

d.

entropy principle

ANS: A

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86

FEEDBACK: Jung drew on ideas from physics to explain the functioning of psychic energy. He proposed three basic principles: opposites, equivalence, and entropy.

12.Which of the following best describes Jung’s principle of opposites?

a.

The psychic energy expended in bringing about some condition is not lost but rather is shifted to another part of a personality.

c.

The psychic energy is continually redistributed within a personality.

b.

The conflict between polarities is the primary motivator of behavior and generator of psychic energy.

d.

The sharper the conflict between opposing tendencies in a personality, lesser the psychic energy is produced.

ANS: B

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86

FEEDBACK: Jung noted the existence of opposites or polarities in psychic energy in the universe. According to him, every wish or feeling has its opposite. This opposition—this conflict between polarities—is the primary motivator of behavior and generator of energy.

13.In principle of equivalence, Jung argued that:

a.

the greater the conflict between the opposing processes or tendencies in a personality, the greater will be the psychic energy produced.

c.

psychic energy is continually redistributed

within a personality.

b.

only one among a pair of psychological functions is dominant, as even the functions in a pair are opposing.

d.

there is a tendency toward maintaining a balance or equilibrium in a personality.

ANS: C

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86

FEEDBACK: For his principle of equivalence, Jung applied the physical principle of the conservation of energy to psychic events. He stated that energy expended in bringing about some condition is not lost but rather is shifted to another part of the personality. The principle of equivalence dictates that energy is continually redistributed within the personality.

14.Jung applied the principle of _____ to psychic energy by proposing that there is a tendency toward maintaining a balance or equilibrium in the personality. 

a.

individuation

c.

entropy

b.

opposites

d.

animus revertendi

ANS: C

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 86–87

FEEDBACK: In physics, the principle of entropy refers to the equalization of energy differences. Entropy is a tendency toward balance or equilibrium within the personality; the ideal is an equal distribution of psychic energy over all structures of the personality. Jung applied this law to psychic energy by proposing that there is a tendency toward maintaining a balance or equilibrium in the personality.

15.According to Jung’s principle of _____, if two desires or beliefs differ greatly in intensity or psychic value, energy will flow from the more strongly held to the weaker.

a.

opposites

c.

entropy

b.

equals

d.

equivalence

ANS: C

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 87

FEEDBACK: In physics, the principle of entropy refers to the equalization of energy differences. Jung applied this law to psychic energy by proposing that there is a tendency toward maintaining a balance or equilibrium in the personality. If two desires or beliefs differ greatly in intensity or psychic value, energy will flow from the more strongly held to the weaker.

16.According to Jung’s principle of entropy, if a perfect balance of psychic energy is attained over all the aspects of a personality:

a.

only rational functions will dominate in the personality.

c.

the personality would have no psychic energy.

b.

ego would disappear from the personality.

d.

personal and collective unconscious merge in the personality.

ANS: C

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Psychic Energy: The Basis of Jung’s System

REF: 87

FEEDBACK: If perfect balance or equilibrium were attained, then the personality would have no psychic energy because the opposition principle requires conflict for psychic energy to be produced. Ideally, the personality has an equal distribution of psychic energy overall its aspects, but this ideal state is never achieved.

17.According to Jung, the _____ is the conscious aspect of personality.

a.

ego

c.

superego

b.

id

d.

archetype

ANS: A

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Aspects of Personality

REF: 87

FEEDBACK: The ego is the center of consciousness, the part of the psyche concerned with perceiving, thinking, feeling, and remembering. It is our awareness of ourselves and is responsible for carrying out all the normal everyday activities of waking life.

18.According to Jung, all of the following are distinct aspects of the total personality except _____.

a.

ego

c.

personal unconscious

b.

collective conscious

d.

collective unconscious

ANS: B

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Aspects of Personality

REF: 87–93

FEEDBACK: Jung believed that the total personality, or psyche, is composed of several distinct systems or aspects that can influence one another: the ego (the conscious mind), the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious.

19.Which of the following best describes Jung’s beliefs on introversion and extraversion?

a.

A person has equal characteristics of both introversion and extraversion.

b.

A person typically has a dominant attitude toward either introversion or extraversion.

c.

A person’s dominant attitude affects his or her personal unconscious.

d.

A person remains either introverted or extraverted throughout the life.

ANS: B

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Aspects of Personality

REF: 87

FEEDBACK: According to Jung, all of us have the capacity for both introversion and extraversion, but only one becomes dominant in our personality. Much of our conscious perception of our environment, and how we react to it, is determined by these opposing mental attitudes.

20.Which of the following applies to the mental attitudes of extraversion and introversion?

a.

The dominant attitude directs a person’s consciousness and behavior.

b.

Only one of the attitudes becomes dominant in a person’s personality.

c.

The nondominant attitude becomes part of a person’s personal unconscious.

d.

All of these are correct.

ANS: D

PTS: 1

A-HEAD: Aspects of Personality

REF: 87

FEEDBACK: According to Jung, all of us have the capacity for both attitudes, but only one becomes dominant in our personality. The dominant attitude then tends to direct our behavior and consciousness. The nondominant attitude still remains influential, however, and becomes part of the personal unconscious, where it can affect behavior.

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