Test Bank For Population And Community Health Nursing 6 Ed By Mary JO Clark

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ISBN-10: 0133859592, ISBN-13: 9780133859591

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Test Bank For Population And Community Health Nursing 6 Ed By Mary JO Clark

Population and Community Health Nursing, 6e (Clark)

Chapter 3   Epidemiology and Population Health Nursing

1) After being diagnosed with cancer the patient tells the population health nurse that the disease is punishment from God. Which theory of disease causation is this patient using to explain the illness?

1. Environment.

2. Physical forces.

3. Specific organism.

4. Divine intervention.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Theories about the cause of disease and ill health have evolved over time. The first recognized attempt to attribute a cause to illness occurred during the “religious era.” During this period, disease was thought to be caused directly or indirectly by divine intervention, possibly as punishment for sins or as a trial of faith. During Hippocrates’ time, the primary belief of disease was from harmful substances in the environment. Before the religious era, disease was often attributed to physical forces such as miasmas or mists. The belief that disease was caused by a specific organism was introduced in the late 1870s with the bacteriologic era.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-1

2) A patient diagnosed with a terminal illness asks why the disease developed when others who have less healthy lifestyle habits enjoy good health. Which theory of disease causation should the nurse use when responding to this patient’s enquiry?

1. Environment.

2. Divine intervention.

3. Single cause theory.

4. Multiple cause theory.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. The discovery of specific agents responsible for particular diseases did not explain why some people exposed to an agent developed the disease, while others did not. The result of this explanatory failure was the movement into the current era of multiple causation or the ecosocial perspective. The era of multiple causation is characterized by the recognition that multiple factors interact in the development of health or illness in a given person or population and that there is seldom one single cause. During Hippocrates’ time, the primary belief of disease was from harmful substances in the environment. During the religious era disease was thought to be caused directly or indirectly by divine intervention, possibly as punishment for sins or as a trial of faith. During the bacteriologic era specific organisms were identified as causative agents for specific diseases.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Implementation

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-1

3) The population health nurse is visiting the home of a family whose youngest child developed chickenpox after being exposed to a classmate with the same disease. Of which criterion for establishing a causal relationship is this situation an example?

1. Frequency.

2. Consistency.

3. Absolute risk.

4. Susceptibility.

Answer:  2

Explanation:  2. Consistency is the first criterion for establishing a causal relationship. This consistency must be between the supposed causal factor and its presumed effect. The condition in question must occur when the factor is present, not when it is absent. Frequency is not a criterion for establishing a causal relationship. Absolute risk is the probability that anyone in a given population will develop a particular condition. Susceptibility is the ability to be affected by factors contributing to a particular health condition.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-2

4) The population health nurse is trying to identify the causative relationship for a group of school students who developed viral meningitis. Which criterion must the nurse identify to prove causation for the development of the disease in these students?

1. Coherence.

2. Specificity.

3. Consistency.

4. Temporal relationship.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Only the criterion of a correct temporal relationship is absolutely required for attributing causation. Temporal relationship is the time between the factor and the result condition. The factor thought to be causative should occur before the condition occurs. Coherence is the idea that one condition that causes another must be logical and should be congruent with other known facts. Specificity is present when the factor in question results in one specific condition. Consistency is when the condition in question occurs when the factor is present and not when it is absent.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Diagnosis

Client Need:  Physiological Integrity

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-2

5) The population health nurse notes that the number of cases of diabetes in a community remained stable during the last year. However in January, ten new diagnoses of diabetes were confirmed. What type of data is the nurse analyzing?

1. Incidence.

2. Morbidity.

3. Prevalence.

4. Case fatality rate.

Answer:  1

Explanation:  1. Incidence reflects the number of new cases of a particular condition identified during a specified period of time. Morbidity is the ratio of the number of cases of a disease or condition to the number of people in the population. Prevalence is the total number of people affected by a particular condition at a specified point in time. Case fatality rate is the percentage of persons who develop a health problem and who die as a result of it.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Application

Learning Outcome:  3-4

6) The population health nurse is compiling childhood illness statistics and finds that the morbidity for chickenpox is higher for one neighborhood in comparison to the local county. What does this information mean to the nurse?

1. There are new cases of chickenpox in the neighborhood.

2. There are a larger percentage of children with chickenpox in the neighborhood.

3. A large group of children have been affected by chickenpox in the neighborhood.

4. There has been a rise in the number of children with chickenpox during a specified period of time in the neighborhood.

Answer:  4

Explanation:  4. Morbidity is the ratio of the number of cases of a disease or condition to the number of people in the population. The morbidity for chickenpox indicates the total number and new cases identified during and at a specified period of time. Incidence is the number of new cases alone. The percentage with chickenpox represents case rate. Prevalence is the group affected by chickenpox.

Nursing/Int.Conc:  Nursing Process: Assessment

Client Need:  Health Promotion and Maintenance

Cognitive Level:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  3-4

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