Test Bank For Nutrition for Sport And Exercise 2nd Edition by Marie Dunford

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Test Bank For Nutrition for Sport And Exercise 2nd Edition by Marie Dunford

Test Bank for Nutrition for Sport & Exercise 2e

Chapter 3 – Energy Systems and Exercise

Learning Objectives

1. Describe the characteristics of the creatine phosphate, anaerobic glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation energy systems.

2. Evaluate creatine supplements based on legality, ethics, safety, and effectiveness 

3. Compare and contrast the three energy systems and give examples of physical activities, exercise, or sports in which each is the predominant energy system.

4. Outline the process of carbohydrate, fat, and protein (amino acid) oxidation.

5. Explain the response of oxygen consumption to steady-state, sub-maximal exercise

6. Explain the concept of maximal oxygen consumption and become familiar with relative values of VO2 max.

7. Explain the concept of respiratory exchange ratio and describe the process of determining the percentage of fat and carbohydrate fuel utilization.

Question Information Key

ANS = correct answer REF = page reference

DIF = question classification OBJ = learning objective

Multiple Choice

1. What is creatine phosphate (CrP)?

a. An amino acid

b. A nitrogen-containing compound made from amino acids

c. A phosphate-containing protein

d. A byproduct of the breakdown of creatinine

ANS: b DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 70 OBJ: 3.1

2. Which of the following is a true statement regarding the function of creatine phosphate (CrP)?

a. It functions in exactly the same way as ATP; there is just less CrP in cells

b. CrP directly powers muscle contraction

c. CrP rapidly replenishes ATP

d. All of the above

ANS: c DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 70 OBJ: 3.1

3. Based on dietary intake only, whom would you expect to have the lowest amount of muscle creatine?

a. Vegetarians

b. Red meat eaters

c. Fish eaters

d. No differences would be expected based on dietary intake

ANS: a DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 70-71 OBJ: 3.1

4. How many chemical steps are required for the rephosphorylation of ATP by creatine phosphate?

a. 1

b. 3

c. 18

d. 124

ANS: a DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 71 OBJ: 3.1

5. What is the effect on muscle ATP and creatine phosphate (CrP) when an athlete performs very-high-intensity exercise for a very short period of time (e.g., 10 seconds)?

a. ATP and CrP both decline rapidly and in concert with each other.

b. Neither ATP nor CrP decline much because of the very short duration of exercise.

c. CrP declines rapidly but there is virtually no decline in ATP.

d. ATP declines then plateaus while CrP declines substantially.

ANS: d DIF: Analysis REF: 71 OBJ: 3.1

6. What is the major factor that limits the use of the creatine phosphate energy system?

a. The pH of the cell increases

b. Creatine phosphate can be depleted

c. Muscle glycogen can be depleted

d. Increased oxygen consumption

ANS: b DIF: Comprehension REF: 71 OBJ: 3.1

7. If creatine phosphate is nearly depleted in skeletal muscle by high-intensity exercise, how is it rephosphorylated?

a. By consuming creatine as a dietary supplement 

b. By consuming ATP as a dietary supplement

c. From ATP generated anaerobically by glycolysis 

d. From ATP generated aerobically by oxidative phosphorylation 

ANS: d DIF: Comprehension REF: 72-73 OBJ: 3.1

8. If creatine phosphate is nearly depleted in skeletal muscle by high-intensity exercise, approximately how long does it take to restore creatine phosphate levels?

a. 1-2 seconds 

b. 1-2 minutes

c. 1-2 hours 

d. 1-2 days 

ANS: b DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 74 OBJ: 3.1

9. Those who respond to creatine supplementation could expect that muscle creatine phosphate concentrations would increase by approximately ____%.

a. 5

b. 20

c. 37

d. 50

ANS: b DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 74 OBJ: 3.2

10. Which of the following is a true statement regarding creatine supplementation?

a. Has been shown to be beneficial for both strength and endurance athletes

b. Has a direct effect on improving strength, speed, and power for strength athletes

c. Causes dehydration and muscle cramping in strength athletes

d. Allows strength and power athletes to sustain high-intensity training

ANS: d DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 74 OBJ: 3.2

11. In a well-designed study, a statistically significant increase in maximal strength with creatine supplementation was detected at 12 weeks but not at 1 week. What is the likely explanation?

a. Creatine supplementation allowed athletes to complete more weight lifting repetitions and sets, but the effects of the training are not seen immediately. 

b. It takes time (about three months) for the body to increase the total amount of ATP stored in muscle.

c. Time was needed to maximize carbohydrate stores because creatine storage and function are directly related to the size of muscle glycogen stores.

d. Hormonal balance is altered, but the changes are slow and subtle and not detectable for approximately 12 weeks.

ANS: a DIF: Analysis REF: 74-75 OBJ: 3.2

12. Which of the following is a true statement regarding creatine supplementation?

a. The usual daily dose is 3 to 5 g

b. Some people do not respond to creatine supplementation

c. An increase in muscle cell water is expected

d. All of the above

ANS: d DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 74-75 OBJ: 3.2

13. In healthy strength and power athletes, creatine supplements are considered to be:

a. safe and effective.

b. safe but ineffective.

c. unsafe but effective.

d. unsafe and ineffective.

ANS: a DIF: Recall/analysis REF: 74-75 OBJ: 3.2

14. The current recommendations made regarding the safety and effectiveness of creatine are based on:

a. weak epidemiological research.

b. strong epidemiological research.

c. weak experimental research.

d. strong experimental research.

ANS: d DIF: Analysis REF: 75 OBJ: 3.2

15. Anaerobic glycolysis is an energy system that uses:

a. carbohydrate only.

b. carbohydrate preferentially, but fat or protein if necessary.

c. carbohydrate, protein, or fat based on availability.

d. carbohydrate, protein, fat, or alcohol .

ANS: a DIF: Comprehension REF: 75 OBJ: 3.1

16. The rate of glycolysis in muscle is controlled primarily by:

a. lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).

b. myosin ATPase.

c. creatine kinase (CK).

d. phosphofructokinase (PFK).

ANS: d DIF: Comprehension REF: 76 OBJ: 3.1

17. The net (final) ATP production from anaerobic glycolysis is:

a. 2 ATPs if beginning with glycogen.

b. 3 ATPs if beginning with glucose.

c. 3 ATPs if beginning with glycogen.

d. 38 ATPs if beginning with glucose.

ANS: c DIF: Comprehension REF: 77 OBJ: 3.1

18. Anaerobic production of ATP can occur in the:

a. mitochondria via glycolysis.

b. mitochondria via oxidative phosphorylation.

c. cytoplasm/sarcoplasm via glycolysis.

d. sarcoplasmic reticulum via resoporification.

ANS: c DIF: Comprehension REF: 76|83 OBJ: 3.1

19. The energy source preferred by exercising muscle for the process of anaerobic glycolysis is: 

a. glucose.

b. glycogen.

c. glycerol.

d. creatine.

ANS: b DIF: Comprehension REF: 77 OBJ: 3.1

20. The duration of the anaerobic glycolysis energy system is approximately:

a. 30 seconds. 

b. 1-2 minutes.

c. 1-2 hours.

d. 1-2 days.

ANS: b DIF: Recall/comprehension REF: 77-78 OBJ: 3.1

21. Which of the following is a true statement about lactate?

a. It is a waste product that “poisons” muscle and other tissues. 

b. It is produced by muscle only during high-intensity exercise.

c. It is metabolized via aerobic metabolism. 

d. It is a metabolic waste product.

ANS: c DIF: Comprehension REF: 78-79 OBJ: 3.1

22. Why is pyruvate considered a “key glycolytic compound”?

a. It can be metabolized either anaerobically or aerobically. 

b. It has the simplest chemical structure of all the substrates used for energy.

c. It is the entry point for aerobic metabolism of all carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. 

d. It is more stable than acetyl CoA.

ANS: a DIF: Comprehension REF: 78 OBJ: 3.1

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