Test Bank For Nursing Research Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence Based Practice, 8th Edition by Geri LoBiondo

Test Bank For Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for the Nursing Practice 9th edition by Pilot is a great resource for nursing students. This book provides a comprehensive overview of nursing research, from generating hypotheses to collecting and analyzing data. It also includes a wealth of real-world examples to illustrate key concepts.

Test Bank For Nursing Research in Canada 4th Edition by Geri LoBiondo is another excellent resource for Canadian nursing students. This book provides an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and how it affects nursing research. It also includes a variety of case studies to illustrate how nursing research is used in real-world settings. These two books are essential resources for any nursing student who wants to succeed in their studies.

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Test Bank For Nursing Research Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice, 8th Edition by Geri LoBiondo

Chapter 03: Gathering and Appraising the Literature

Test Bank

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The review of literature is important to the research process for which of these reasons?

a.

It guides all steps of the research process.

b.

It provides a vehicle to disseminate the findings of the study.

c.

It guides only the conceptualization of the problem statement.

d.

It identifies only gaps or inconsistencies in the knowledge base.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The review of the literature is important throughout all stages of a research study.

B

A completed study may be published to disseminate the findings of a study and thus become one citation in a literature review for future studies. However, the literature review does not ensure this.

C

The review of the literature guides the problem statement as it is defined along with all other parts and stages of a research study.

D

The review of the literature contributes to consistencies in the literature, locates instruments used to measure variables, identifies experts on topics, etc.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 50

2. The “6S” pyramid hierarchy of preappraised evidence developed by DiCenso, Bayley, & Haynes (2009) provides a means to help nurse consumers of research find preappraised evidence for clinical questions. Using this model, which level of evidence would be highest?

a.

Summaries such as clinical practice guidelines

b.

Synopsis of Synthesis such as summaries found in the journal Evidence-Based Nursing

c.

Syntheses or systematic reviews such as a Cochrane review

d.

Studies such as synopses of a single study

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The highest level of those presented in the question is Summaries, which include clinical practice guidelines and electronic evidence-based textbooks. These summaries about specific conditions are updated regularly. An even higher level of the 6S pyramid is Computerized Decision Support Systems (CDSS), which integrate evidence-based clinical information into an electronic medical record. At present, these systems are not a reality in most institutions and, therefore, they were not included as an option in this question.

B

Next highest is Synopsis of Synthesis, which provides a preappraised summary of a systematic review that can be found in journals, such as Evidence-Based Nursing.

C

Third highest is Syntheses or systematic reviews such as a Cochrane review.

D

Lowest in the hierarchy is Studies, which often refer to synopses of single studies evaluated by a single expert.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 55-57

3. For which of these reasons would a nurse researcher include refereed journals in the literature review?

a.

The articles are critiqued by a panel of external reviewers.

b.

The articles selected for publication are related to a specific field of knowledge.

c.

The journals encourage competition among authors to have their articles published.

d.

The journals publish only articles that are primary sources of research findings.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The articles are critiqued by a panel of external expert readers.

B

Articles selected for publication are sources of the latest information about a great variety of fields of knowledge.

C

There is no overt competition among authors because refereed journals have blinded reviews in most cases.

D

Refereed journals are often the first source of primary research findings, but they may also include other types of research articles.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 60

4. A research article has undergone a blind review for a peer-reviewed journal. The nurse reading the research article should understand which of the following about this review process?

a.

The reviewers of the article did not know the identity of the other reviewers.

b.

The reviewers of the article did not know the identity of the author.

c.

The criteria used to review the article were not known to the author.

d.

The criteria used to review the article were determined by the reviewers.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The reviewers of the article may or may not know the identity of the other reviewers.

B

In a blind review, the manuscript to be reviewed does not include the name of the author.

C

A standard set of scholarly criteria is used to review the article. The criteria are usually known to the author.

D

The criteria used to review the article are established by expert reviewers appointed by the publication’s editors.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 60

5. For which of these reasons would a nurse researcher decide to use secondary sources in a review of the literature?

a.

They provide material written by the person who conducted the study.

b.

They provide a different way of looking at specific issues or problems.

c.

They define the relationship of two or more variables affecting an outcome.

d.

They supplement the body of nursing knowledge in a specific area of practice.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Secondary sources are authored by an individual other than the researcher who conducted the study.

B

The evidence is distilled by an expert and usually provides a critical evaluation or response to a study, not necessarily a different way of looking at specific issues or problems.

C

The relationship of two or more variables affecting an outcome defines a hypothesis.

D

Secondary sources published in refereed journals usually include implications for practice and the work’s contributions to the development of nursing science.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-1

6. Which is an example of a primary source in a literature review?

a.

A video recorded interview of a nurse researcher

b.

A critique of a nursing research study

c.

An edited textbook on nursing research

d.

A review of theoretical frameworks used in nursing research

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Primary sources include articles, books, diaries, films, and oral histories of the person who conducted the study or developed the theory.

B

A critique of a nursing research study is a secondary source.

C

An edited textbook on nursing research is a secondary source.

D

A review of theoretical frameworks is a secondary source.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-1

7. Which is an example of a secondary source in a literature review?

a.

An oral history of a nurse researcher

b.

An investigator’s report of a research study

c.

A summary and critique of another’s scholarly work

d.

An autobiography of a developer of a nursing theory

ANS: C

Feedback

A

An oral history of a nurse researcher is a primary source.

B

An investigator’s report of a research study is a primary source.

C

Secondary sources include materials written by persons other than the person who conducted a research study or developed a particular theory.

D

An autobiography of a developer of a nursing theory is a primary source.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-1

8. Which of these electronic databases is the most relevant and frequently used source for nursing literature?

a.

MEDLINE

b.

CINAHL

c.

Cochrane Collaboration

d.

National Guideline Clearinghouse

ANS: B

Feedback

A

MEDLINE includes some nursing sources, but it is not the most comprehensive database for nursing.

B

CINAHL is the most relevant and frequently used source for nursing literature, covering nursing and related literature from 1956 to the present.

C

The Cochrane Collaboration provides access to abstracts from Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews but is not a nursing literature source.

D

The National Guideline Clearinghouse provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines but is not a nursing literature source.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Remembering (Knowledge) REF: Page 60

9. When comparing MEDLINE and CINAHL databases, which of these differences will the nurse find?

a.

The coverage of MEDLINE dates back to 1975, whereas the coverage of CINAHL dates back to 1980.

b.

MEDLINE’s journal coverage includes more than 10,000 biomedical journals, whereas CINAHL’s coverage includes more than 5000 journals.

c.

MEDLINE’s database size is more than 21 million records, whereas CINAHL’s database size is more than 3.2 million records.

d.

MEDLINE has more than 500 Evidence-Based Care Sheets, whereas CINAHL has more than 50 Evidence-Based Care Sheets.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The coverage of MEDLINE dates back to 1947, whereas the coverage of CINAHL dates back to 1937.

B

MEDLINE’s journal coverage includes more than 5600 biomedical journals, whereas CINAHL’s coverage includes more than 5000 journals.

C

MEDLINE’s database size is more than 21 million records, whereas CINAHL’s database size is more than 3.2 million records.

D

CINAHL has more than 130 Evidence-Based Care Sheets, whereas MEDLINE has a Clinical Queries tool to filter for systematic reviews.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-3

10. A general timeline for a literature search for an academic paper or project is to go back how far in the literature?

a.

At least the last 6 months to 2 years

b.

At least the past 3 to 5 years

c.

At least the past 6 to 10 years

d.

At least the past 12 to 15 years

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The most recent 6 months to 2 years is an insufficient timeline for an academic paper or project.

B

The past 3 to 5 years is a sufficient timeline for an academic paper or project because recent literature is relevant and may include classic references in reference lists.

C

Six to 10 years is probably longer than the timeline needed for the search.

D

Twelve to 15 years is likely to be much longer than the timeline needed for the search.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 64

11. A nurse is encouraged to use a Boolean operator to more efficiently perform an electronic search of the literature. The nurse should understand that a Boolean operator is what?

a.

A specialized reference librarian who can assist in searches of electronic medical and nursing databases

b.

A software program that enables combinations of permissions and restrictions for a database search

c.

A definition of the relationship between words or groups of words in a literature search such as “and”

d.

A clinical query that can be performed to focus on a particular clinical issue or practice question

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Although reference librarians can be helpful for electronic database searches, they are not Boolean operators.

B

A Boolean operator is not a software program but refers to variables that define an electronic database search.

C

A Boolean operator defines the relationships between words or groups of words in the literature search. These include the words, “and,” “or,” and “not.”

D

A Boolean operator is not a query for a clinical issue or practice question.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 68

12. Which command is an example of a Boolean connection used when ordering an electronic literature search?

a.

Explode topic

b.

Limit search to abstracts

c.

Search from years 2003 to 2013

d.

Search diabetes diagnosis and treatment

ANS: D

Feedback

A

“Explode topic” is a search strategy, not a Boolean connection.

B

Limiting the search to abstracts is not a Boolean connection.

C

Specifying the time limit of the search is not a Boolean connection.

D

Boolean connections include the terms “and,” “not,” and “or,” which link thesaurus terms and influence the search.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 68

13. Which website is an important source for clinical evidence but limited as a provider of primary documents for literature reviews?

a.

CINAHL

b.

MEDLINE

c.

Cochrane Library

d.

PsychINFO

ANS: C

Feedback

A

CINAHL contains many primary source citations.

B

MEDLINE contains many primary source citations.

C

The Cochrane Library is important as a source for clinical evidence but limited as a provider of primary documents for literature reviews.

D

PsycINFO includes professional and academic literature in psychology.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-4

14. What is considered to be essential to a thorough and relevant review of the literature?

a.

Use of both published and unpublished sources

b.

Critical evaluation of mainly primary sources

c.

Liberal use of secondary sources

d.

Evaluation of both quantitative and qualitative sources

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Although both published and unpublished sources may be used, it is the evaluation of primary published sources that is most important.

B

A thorough and accurate evaluation of mainly primary sources of information is necessary for a thorough and relevant literature review.

C

Secondary sources may be used, but they should be used sparingly.

D

Although both quantitative and qualitative sources may be used, it is not necessary to include both in a review of the literature.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-1

15. Which objective of a review of the literature is unique to a review for research purposes, rather than a review for evidence-based practice?

a.

Discover conceptual frameworks used to examine problems

b.

Generate useful research questions and hypotheses

c.

Determine what is unknown about a subject, as well as what requires clarification

d.

Uncover a new practice intervention or gain support for current interventions and policies

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Conceptual frameworks are useful for both formal research and evidence-based practice.

B

For research purposes, the literature review focuses the study by discovering gaps or conflicts in the literature and identifying areas where little research evidence exists. This helps define the research questions and hypotheses.

C

Both formal research and evidence-based practice are concerned with what is known about a subject, as well as what requires clarification.

D

Uncovering new practice interventions or gaining support for current practices is primarily in the realm of evidence-based practice.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 50

16. Which of these factors limits the usefulness of the World Wide Web as a source of information for research consumers?

a.

Downloading from the Web can be a slow process.

b.

Nontext capabilities reduce the professionalism of presentations.

c.

There is little quality control over the information on many websites.

d.

Much of the available information is too technical to be understood by the casual reader.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Downloading is often a rapid process.

B

This is not an accurate statement about the professionalism of presentations and nontext capabilities.

C

Many sources are not data based and primary sources. It is not always evident which sources are data based and which are not.

D

Much information on the Web is comprehensible to the casual reader.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 63

17. When the nurse researcher conducts an electronic literature search, the search yields more than 7000 citations for the topic. The researcher should make which of these interpretations of the finding?

a.

The search was comprehensive.

b.

The key words were not sufficiently narrowed.

c.

The topic does not require additional investigation.

d.

The topic has broad application across health care disciplines.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

The search was too broad and included too many citations to scroll through.

B

Limiting the focus is necessary using thesaurus terms.

C

The topic required a more manageable number of retrievals.

D

The topic is too broad and may or may not apply across various health care disciplines.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 55

18. Why would a nurse researcher choose to use multiple online fee-based databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE?

a.

The charges for these services are minimal.

b.

Databases are updated weekly or monthly.

c.

An independent professional critique of each work accompanies the full text.

d.

The service provides translations to English of articles written in other languages.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Libraries pay for database use through subscriptions.

B

Databases are updated monthly or weekly.

C

Critiques do not necessarily accompany full texts of all citations.

D

Translations are not provided; citations may be excluded by specifying the preferred language.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Page 60

19. A study published in a nursing research journal is titled, “Effects of nocturnal hemodialysis on physiological and psychological parameters of patients with end-stage kidney disease.” The nurse should recognize that this study belongs to which of these types of reference?

a.

Primary

b.

Secondary

c.

Tertiary

d.

Historical

ANS: A

Feedback

A

The example is a research study, a primary source.

B

This is not a secondary source but a primary source.

C

The example is a primary source, not a tertiary source.

D

The example is a primary source of a research study, not a historical study.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-1

20. Literature reviews are usually organized according to what?

a.

The order in which materials are retrieved

b.

The conceptual or theoretical concepts

c.

The importance or credibility of authors

d.

The variables being studied

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Some retrieved citations are not useful and must be discarded. The order in which materials are retrieved may not be a logical sequence for a formal, written review of the literature.

B

The conceptual or theoretical framework does not necessarily organize the literature review. Usually, it introduces the topic, prior to the review of literature.

C

At times, unknown authors are essential to a thorough literature review.

D

The variables being studied provide a useful organizational approach to the literature review.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Understanding (Comprehension) REF: Table 3-2

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