Test Bank For Nursing Research in Canada 4th Edition by Geri LoBiondo

Test Bank For Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence For Nursing practice 9th edition By Pilot provides students with the necessary tools to succeed in their nursing research course. The Test Bank For Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence For Nursing practice 9th edition By Pilot covers all the key concepts in nursing research and provides practice questions for each concept. In addition, the Test Bank For Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence For Nursing practice 9th edition By Pilot includes a glossary of key terms and a complete list of references.

As a result, the Test Bank For Nursing Research Generating and Assessing Evidence For Nursing practice 9th edition By Pilot is an essential resource for any student taking a nursing research course.

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Authors: LoBiondo-Wood, Haber, Cameron, Singh
ISBN: 9781771720984, 9781771720953, 1771720956
1771720980 | 9781771720984

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Test Bank For Nursing Research in Canada 4th Edition by Geri LoBiondo

Chapter 04: Developing Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Clinical Questions

LoBiondo-Wood: Nursing Research in Canada, 4th Edition

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a research problem?

a.

There is no difference between a research problem and a hypothesis.

b.

A hypothesis is theory based, and a research question is practice based.

c.

A hypothesis attempts to answer the question posed by the research problem.

d.

A research problem defines clinical research, and a hypothesis defines bench research.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Hypotheses test research questions by connecting them to statistical analysis and flow from research questions.

B

A hypothesis is sometimes theory based, and sometimes it is not. Research questions are not always practice based; sometimes they originate in educational theory that connects to nursing education research, and sometimes they originate in basic research rather than in applied research.

C

A hypothesis attempts to answer the research question.

D

Research problems are present in all types of research; a hypothesis may be present in basic or applied research.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

2. How is a hypothesis related to a theory?

a.

A hypothesis can determine the validity of a theory.

b.

A hypothesis can be used to evaluate the merit of a theory.

c.

A theory can determine the validity of a hypothesis.

d.

A theory can be used to evaluate the merit of a hypothesis.

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A hypothesis bridges theory to the real world and empirical testing.

B

The merits of a theory are evaluated through a hypothesis.

C

A hypothesis tests the validity of a theory’s assumptions.

D

A theory being used to evaluate the merit of a hypothesis is the reverse of the correct answer.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

3. Which of the following statements represents a potential area of research?

a.

“Most of our admissions occur at night.”

b.

“It is difficult to find personnel willing to work the night shift.”

c.

“It seems that most of the patient falls on our unit occur during the night shift.”

d.

“The night shift personnel are not attending promptly to the needs of our patient.”

ANS: C

Feedback

A

The significance of this statement is doubtful regarding its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

B

The significance of this statement is doubtful regarding its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

C

A specific patient problem has been identified, and the potential contribution of its study to the scientific body of nursing knowledge is promising. The problem is relevant to patients’ state of health.

D

The significance of this statement is doubtful regarding its potential contribution to the scientific body of nursing knowledge; it is a subjective observation.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Application

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

4. When an idea or a clinical situation has emerged as a potential research problem, what is the next appropriate step?

a.

Identifying the variables

b.

Formulating a hypothesis

c.

Performing a literature review

d.

Validating that the problem really exists

ANS: C

Feedback

A

It is too soon to identify the variables; the variables will be confirmed by literature review, which will provide a critical analysis of the factors in the potential research question or problem.

B

The study may not be a hypothesis-testing study; literature review will provide direction by revealing the gaps in the literature.

C

Literature review helps identify the relationships among potential variables and further define the research question, points to a gap in the literature, and extends the knowledge base related to potential variables.

D

The potential of the problem is revealed during a thorough review of the literature.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

5. In a research study, what are the properties of interest that take on different values and are different from each other?

a.

Variables

b.

Concepts

c.

Hypotheses

d.

Assumptions

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Variables are the properties of interest that take on different values and are different from each other.

B

A concept is an abstraction that names an object or phenomenon.

C

A hypothesis is a prediction that helps answer a research question.

D

Assumptions are statements that are accepted as true.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

6. Which of the following identified research problems has enough significance to warrant further development?

a.

Children between 8 and 12 years do not eat the broccoli in their school lunches.

b.

Women above 100 years old are at moderate risk for development of breast cancer.

c.

Obese adults are at risk for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

d.

The rate of sunscreen use among middle aged people is greater than 80%.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

This research problem holds little potential to contribute to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

B

This research problem holds little potential to contribute to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

C

Nursing can make a great contribution to behaviour change in relation to obesity, and so nursing studies on obesity and diabetes mellitus hold significance for the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

D

This research problem holds little potential to contribute to the scientific body of nursing knowledge.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

7. The initial review of the literature helps the investigator:

a.

organize the summary.

b.

identify statistical tests.

c.

identify the need to extend knowledge base.

d.

determine the scope of the study.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

Often subsequent reviews of the literature end with a summary.

B

Statistical tests may not be discovered in the initial literature review.

C

This might be discovered in the initial review of the literature.

D

The scope of the study is better determined in subsequent literature reviews.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

8. Which of the following factors or considerations constitutes the feasibility of a research study?

a.

Availability of the participants

b.

Direction of the hypotheses

c.

Gaps in the literature

d.

Design of the study

ANS: A

Feedback

A

A study’s feasibility is determined by practical considerations. Availability of participants is crucial.

B

The direction of the hypothesis is irrelevant to a study’s feasibility.

C

Gaps in the literature provide support for the research problem, but they do not determine its feasibility.

D

The design of the study is shaped by the research question, not by the study’s feasibility.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. What is the key difference between independent and dependent variables?

a.

The dependent variable should change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.

b.

The independent variable should change in response to manipulation of the dependent variable.

c.

Although both the dependent and independent variables are manipulated, only the dependent variable is considered an intervention.

d.

The dependent variable relies on personal or demographic variables for strength, whereas the independent variable is strong enough to stand alone.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Dependent variables change in response to manipulation of independent variables in experimental research.

B

The reverse is correct; dependent variables change in response to manipulation of independent variables in experimental research.

C

The independent variable alone is considered a manipulation; the dependent variable is the consequence or presumed effect.

D

Demographic variables are sometimes independent variables, such as in nonexperimental research when they may have occurred naturally; strength has nothing to do with their characteristics.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

10. Which of the following statements about independent and dependent variables is true?

a.

All research problem statements must contain a dependent variable and an independent variable.

b.

There should only be one dependent variable associated with a single independent variable.

c.

The relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable for any study must be causal.

d.

A given characteristic or situation may be a dependent variable in one study and an independent variable in another.

ANS: D

Feedback

A

Some descriptive studies have only one variable; qualitative studies do not include independent and dependent variables.

B

Many studies include more than one independent variable and more than one dependent variable.

C

Causal relationships are not necessarily implied by independent and dependent variables; evidence is provided by association-type research questions.

D

Causal or associative direction determines the classification of variables as independent or dependent.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

11. Which part of the following research question is the independent variable?

“To what degree will body weight change individually in a group of Aboriginal women over 50 years of age who participate in a program of walking?”

a.

“Women over 50”

b.

“Body weight change”

c.

“Aboriginal women”

d.

“Participate in a program”

ANS: D

Feedback

A

“Women over 50” is a description of the sample group being studied.

B

In this study, “body weight change” would be the dependent variable.

C

“Aboriginal women” is another description of the sample group being studied.

D

The phrase “participate in a program” indicates that the researcher is asking how participation in a walking program will impact on the women’s body weight.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. Review the abstract information provided below and identify the dependent variable for this study.

“Across time, increases in social support and marriage were associated with increased psychological well-being, whereas longer periods of unemployment were connected with higher depression and lower self-esteem.”

a.

“Social support”

b.

“Marriage”

c.

“Psychological well-being”

d.

“Unemployment”

ANS: C

Feedback

A

“Social support” is the independent variable. Social support causes a change in psychological well-being (dependent variable).

B

“Marriage” or marital status is the independent variable. Marriage causes or effects change in psychological well-being (dependent variable).

C

A change in “psychological well-being” (dependent variable) is affected by social support, marriage, and self-esteem.

D

“Unemployment” or employment status is the independent variable. Unemployment causes or effects change in psychological well-being (dependent variable).

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

13. Which type of format is demonstrated by the following research question?

“Is there a relationship between self-esteem and body weight among postmenopausal women?”

a.

Correlational

b.

Comparative nonexperimental

c.

Quantitative experimental

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: A

Feedback

A

Self-esteem and body weight are variables that are related in an associative way. The word “relationship” strongly suggests correlational design studies.

B

Self-esteem and body weight are included in a comparative nonexperimental study.

C

This research question does not include a causal research question.

D

This research question does not suggest a phenomenological design study; human experience is not mentioned in the question.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Application

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

14. What type of format is demonstrated by the following research question?

“What is the lived experience of late-stage pregnancy loss among women over 35?”

a.

Correlational

b.

Comparative nonexperimental

c.

Quantitative experimental

d.

Phenomenological

ANS: D

Feedback

A

This research question does not demonstrate a correlational study; the phrase “lived experience” suggests a phenomenological study.

B

This research question is not a comparative nonexperimental study.

C

This research question is not a quantitative experimental study; an independent variable and a dependent variable are not in evidence.

D

The phrase “lived experience” suggests a phenomenological study.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

15. Which of the following research problems is testable as written?

a.

Should mothers addicted to crack cocaine be permitted to raise their children?

b.

Is the classroom an appropriate place to teach sex education to 10-year-old children?

c.

Are older adults residing in assisted-living facilities satisfied with their level of social interaction?

d.

Is an HIV infection or AIDS status sufficient rationale for barring the person from employment as an elementary school teacher?

ANS: C

Feedback

A

This example suggests a value statement rather than a research question.

B

This example suggests a value statement rather than a research question.

C

This example implies variables that can be measured and suggests a comparative nonexperimental design study. The independent variable is residence: in assisted-living facilities or not in assisted-living facilities; the dependent variable is social interaction.

D

This example suggests a value statement rather than a research question.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

16. Which of the following is the purpose of a hypothesis for any study?

a.

To identify dependent and independent variables

b.

To provide direction for research by identifying the expected outcome

c.

To define the appropriate measures needed to test the research question

d.

To provide a means to know whether or not the study of the research problem is feasible

ANS: B

Feedback

A

A hypothesis is a statement about the relationship between two or more variables that suggest an answer to the research question.

B

A hypothesis posed as a declarative statement predicts an expected outcome.

C

A hypothesis does not define the appropriate measures needed to test the research question; it suggests statistical testing.

D

A hypothesis does not determine the feasibility of studying the research problem.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Knowledge

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

17. Which of the following hypotheses fails to meet the criteria of testability?

a.

Proper hand washing prevents the spread of infection.

b.

A consistent routine of low-impact aerobic exercising will increase coordination among older adults.

c.

Patients who use guided imagery during MRI procedures will have reduced perceptions of emotional distress compared with patients who do not use guided imagery.

d.

Postoperative patients who receive round-the-clock scheduled analgesics will have lower levels of pain compared with postoperative patients who receive analgesics on a PRN schedule.

ANS: A

Feedback

A

This statement does not suggest that there is a predicted outcome as specifically as the other examples; the word “proper” is value laden.

B

This hypothesis includes a predicted outcome.

C

This hypothesis includes a predicted outcome.

D

This hypothesis includes a predicted outcome.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. Which of the following hypotheses is nondirectional?

a.

A hospital with an infection control nurse will have fewer instances of sepsis among inpatients than will a hospital without an infection control nurse.

b.

Greater weight loss will be seen among dieting patients who receive a weekly supportive telephone call from a dietitian than among dieting patients who do not receive a weekly supportive phone call.

c.

A difference in the stage of prostate cancer will be seen among men who had an abnormal result from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening compared with men who had an abnormal result from digital rectal examination (DRE) screening.

d.

Children who receive weekly counselling for 1 year after the death of a parent will perform better in school than will children who do not receive weekly counselling after the death of a parent.

ANS: C

Feedback

A

This example includes a directional hypothesis; the expected direction is present (fewer).

B

This example includes a directional hypothesis; the expected direction is present (greater).

C

This example includes a nondirectional hypothesis; there is no expected direction evident.

D

A directional hypothesis; the expected direction is present (better).

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

19. What type of hypothesis is demonstrated by the following statement?

“There will be no difference in the number of adverse events among patients discharged 2 days after an abdominal hysterectomy compared with patients discharged 4 days after an abdominal hysterectomy.”

a.

Nondirectional hypothesis

b.

Directional hypothesis

c.

Deductive hypothesis

d.

Null hypothesis

ANS: D

Feedback

A

This example is not a nondirectional hypothesis; no expected direction is present.

B

This example is not a directional hypothesis.

C

This example is not a deductive hypothesis.

D

This is a null hypothesis, stating that there is no relationship between the independent and dependent variables.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Analysis

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

20. Which type of research studies is expected to have research questions rather than hypotheses?

a.

Experimental studies

b.

Exploratory studies

c.

Correlational studies

d.

Predictive studies

ANS: B

Feedback

A

Experimental studies must have hypotheses so that variables can be investigated.

B

Exploratory studies do not investigate dependent and independent variables, which makes it necessary for them to have research questions rather than hypotheses.

C

Correlational studies require hypotheses that focus on relationships among variables.

D

Predictive studies require hypotheses that focus on causality.

DIF:Cognitive Level: Comprehension

MSC: NCLEX Client Care Needs Category: Safe and Effective Care Environment; Health Promotion and Maintenance

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