Test Bank for Natural Hazards And Disasters 4th Edition by Donald Hyndman

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Test Bank for Natural Hazards And Disasters 4th Edition by Donald Hyndman

Test Bank Chapter 2

Natural Hazards and Disasters, 4e Plate Tectonics and Physical Hazards

Chapter 2

PLATE TECTONICS AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

  1. What direction is the Pacific Plate currently moving, based on the chain of Hawaiian Islands with only the easternmost island active? 
  1. to the northeast
  2. to the northwest 
  3. to the southeast
  4. to the southwest
  5. It is not moving; the chain of islands is not related to the active one.

ANSWER: b

  1. Before people understood plate tectonics, what evidence led some scientists to believe in continental drift? 
  1. Rocks on the ocean floor are oldest in the center, becoming progressively younger toward each continent.
  2. Rocks on the continents can be traced through the ocean floor to the other side.
  3. Anthropologists have found human carvings in Africa that match those in Brazil.
  4. Glaciers near the mouth of the Amazon River in Brazil carried distinctive rocks into South Africa, demonstrating that those countries were once connected.
  5. Ages of bedrock formations match across the Atlantic Ocean.

ANSWER: e 

  1. Which of the following was NOT used as early evidence for continental drift?
  1. ages of bedrock formations that match across the Atlantic Ocean
  2. match of coastlines across the Atlantic Ocean 
  3. match of rock formations across the Atlantic Ocean
  4. match of ages of continental rocks across the Atlantic Ocean
  5. the fact that the magnetic pole shifts from north to south 

ANSWER: e 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  1. The mantle is denser than the lithosphere.
  2. The lithosphere is denser than the mantle.
  3. The asthenosphere is the more rigid equivalent of the mantle.
  4. The asthenosphere is the more plastic part of the mantle.
  5. The mantle is everywhere more rigid than the crust.

ANSWER: d 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  1. Oceanic rift zones are found only in the center of the oceans.
  2. Rift zones are found only in the ocean basins.
  3. Rift zones are areas where oceanic crust is formed. 
  4. Rift zones are the oldest parts of the oceanic crust.
  5. Rift zones mark the boundaries between oceanic and continental crust.

ANSWER: c 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true?
  1. Subduction zones are areas where ocean floor descends into the mantle.
  2. Subduction zone activity includes very large earthquakes.
  3. Subduction zone activity leads to active volcanoes. 
  4. Subduction zones are areas where ocean floor rocks are formed. 
  5. Subduction zones are marked as the deepest parts of the oceans.

ANSWER: d 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  1. Transform faults show dominantly vertical movement.
  2. Transform faults are only in the ocean basins.
  3. Transform faults are areas of spreading and new crustal generation.
  4. Transform faults change with time from horizontal to vertical motion.
  5. Transform fault motion typically ends abruptly at both ends. 

ANSWER: e 

  1. What does oceanic lithosphere consist of? 
  1. basalt on top of peridotite 
  2. only basalt
  3. only peridotite
  4. basalt and peridotite in layers of variable thickness, in some places above, in others below
  5. partly basalt and partly granite

ANSWER: a 

  1. Along which type of lithospheric plate boundaries are earthquakes common?
  1. only convergent (subduction zones)
  2. only divergent (spreading zones)
  3. only transform
  4. only divergent and transform
  5. convergent, divergent, and transform 

ANSWER: e 

10.Near which type of lithospheric plate boundary are andesite stratovolcanoes most common? 

  1. rift zones on continents
  2. collision zones between continental plates
  3. subduction zones between oceanic and continental plates 
  4. subduction zones between two continents
  5. transform fault boundaries between oceanic and continental plates

ANSWER: c 

  1. Why does oceanic lithosphere almost always sink beneath continental lithosphere at convergent plate boundaries? 
  1. Oceanic lithosphere moves so slowly that it can only sink.
  2. Oceanic lithosphere is at the bottom of the ocean, so it can’t float high enough to ride over a continent.
  3. Oceanic lithosphere is almost twice as dense as the underlying mantle.
  4. Oceanic lithosphere is denser than continental lithosphere. 
  5. Oceanic lithosphere is partly liquid, so it floats on the solid continental lithosphere.

ANSWER: d 

  1. If the Atlantic Ocean floor is getting wider, why is the Earth not becoming larger? 
  1. Actually, the Atlantic Ocean floor is not getting wider.
  2. Old ocean floor sinks at subduction zones (trenches).
  3. It is becoming denser, so it takes up no more space.
  4. It becomes part of the edge of the adjacent continent.
  5. It melts at oceanic transform faults.

ANSWER: b 

  1. Which of the following is true?
  1. Earth’s crust is denser than the mantle.
  2. Earth’s crust is thicker than the mantle.
  3. Earth’s crust is part of the asthenosphere and equivalent to it in composition.
  4. Earth’s crust is part of the mantle and forms the upper part of it.
  5. Earth’s crust is less dense than the mantle. 

ANSWER: e 

14.Why do many oceanic volcanoes occur as long lines of volcanoes that are active at only one end?

  1. The lithosphere moves over a stable hotspot in the mantle. 
  2. The mantle convection cell under the crust carries the magma source from one end of the line of volcanoes to the other.
  3. The mantle plume that feeds the volcano rotates around the Earth’s core, tracing new volcanoes as it does.
  4. The spreading lithosphere pushes the underlying magma source across the ocean floor.
  5. The active volcanoes are gradually moving away from the oceanic ridge.

ANSWER: a 

  1. The San Andreas Fault is:
  1. a normal fault.
  2. the subduction zone bordering the Pacific Plate.
  3. a rift zone running the length of California.
  4. a reverse fault.
  5. a transform fault.

ANSWER: e 

  1. Along which type(s) of lithospheric plate boundary are basalt-flow eruptions abundant?

a. oceanic rift zones 

b. continental rift zones

c. continental collision zones

d. transform faults

e. mantle plumes

ANSWER: a 

  1. What is a transform fault characterized by?
  1. lithospheric plates sliding past each other 
  2. the movement of one plate over another
  3. the movement of plates away from each other
  4. the movement of one plate down against another
  5. earthquakes but no plate movement

ANSWER: a 

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