Test Bank For Infants and Children Prenatal through Middle Childhood 8th Edition

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Test Bank For Infants and Children Prenatal through Middle Childhood 8th Edition

CHAPTER 1
HISTORY, THEORY, AND RESEARCH STRATEGIES

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. 1)  The central questions addressed by the field of child development
    1. A)  are primarily of scientific interest.
    2. B)  have applied, or practical, importance.
    3. C)  are based exclusively on research conducted by psychologists.
    4. D)  involve all changes a person experiences throughout the lifespan.

    Answer: B

    Page Ref: 4 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.1

  2. 2)  Which of the following statements regarding the major domains of development is true?
    1. A)  The domains of development are separate and distinct.
    2. B)  Each period of development is made up of a new set of domains.
    3. C)  The physical domain has little influence on the other domains.
    4. D)  Development is divided into three broad domains.

    Answer: D Page Ref: 5 Skill: Remember

    Objective: 1.2

  3. 3)  During which period of development does a sense of morality become evident?
    1. A)  infancy and toddlerhood
    2. B)  early childhood
    3. C)  middle childhood
    4. D)  adolescence

    Answer: B
    Page Ref: 6 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.2

  4. 4)  Which of the following statements about emerging adulthood is true?
    1. A)  It is a period of development that spans from age 15 to 21 years.
    2. B)  It is a period of development unique to underdeveloped nations.
    3. C)  Although emerging adults have moved beyond adolescence, they have not yet fully assumed adult roles.
    4. D)  It is a period of development mostly limited to young people in developing nations.

    Answer: C

    Page Ref: 6 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.2

  1. 5)  Theories are vital tools because they
    A) provide organizing frameworks for our observations of children.

    1. B)  provide the ultimate truth about child development.
    2. C)  do not require scientific verification.

    D) are resistant to the influence of cultural values and belief systems.

    Answer: A

    Page Ref: 7
    Skill: Understand Objective: 1.3

  2. 6)  In what important way do theories differ from mere opinion or belief? A) They are influenced by cultural values.
    1. B)  They depend on scientific verification.
    2. C)  They explain all aspects of development.

    D) They cannot be tested using research procedures. Answer: B
    Page Ref: 7
    Skill: Understand

    Objective: 1.3

  3. 7)  Reid believes that the difference between the immature and the mature being is simply one of amount or complexity. Reid views development asA) discontinuous.

B) determined by nature. C) continuous.
D) determined by nurture.

Answer: C

Page Ref: 7–8 Skill: Apply Objective: 1.3

  1. 8)  Jessica believes that development takes place in stages where children change rapidly as they step up to a new level and then change very little for a while. Jessica views development asA) discontinuous.
    B) determined by nature. C) continuous.
    D) determined by nurture.

    Answer: A

    Page Ref: 8 Skill: Apply Objective: 1.3

  2. 9)  In stage theories, development is A) a smooth, continuous process.
    1. B)  gradual and ongoing.
    2. C)  like climbing a staircase.

    D) a gradual addition of the same types of skills.

    Answer: C

    Page Ref: 8
    Skill: Understand Objective: 1.3

  1. 10)  In her research, Dr. Rosenblum explores why shy children develop differently from their outgoing agemates. Dr. Rosenblum most likely emphasizes __________ in her research.A) the role of distinct contexts
    B) the nature–nurture controversy C) theconceptofstage
    D) continuous development

    Answer: A

    Page Ref: 8 Skill: Apply Objective: 1.3

  2. 11)  Charlene believes that her daughter’s ability to think in complex ways is largely the result of a built-in timetable of growth. Charlene’s view emphasizesA) nurture.
    B) nature.
    C) plasticity.
    D) early experiences.

    Answer: B

    Page Ref: 9 Skill: Apply Objective: 1.3

  3. 12)  Theorists who believe that children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages typically stress the importance ofA) heredity. B) stages. C) nurture. D) plasticity.

    Answer: A

    Page Ref: 9 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.3

  4. 13)  Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that
    A) early experiences establish a lifelong pattern of behavior.

    1. B)  heredity, rather than the environment, influences behavior.
    2. C)  children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages.

    D) development is open to change in response to influential experiences.

    Answer: D

    Page Ref: 9 Skill: Understand Objective: 1.3

  5. 14)  According to research on resilience, which of the following children has an increased chance of offsetting the impact of a stressful home life?A) Luke, who is an irritable child
    1. B)  Michelle, who is an emotionally reactive child
    2. C)  Noah, who is a talented musician

    D) Sarah, who associates with rule-breaking peers

    Answer: C

    Page Ref: 10–11 Box: Biology and Environment: Resilient Children Skill: Apply
    Objective: 1.3

  1. 15)  Themostconsistentassetofresilientchildrenis A) high self-esteem.
    1. B)  access to high-quality child care.
    2. C)  a strong bond with a competent, caring adult.

    D) being identified as gifted.

    Answer: C

    Page Ref: 11 Box: Biology and Environment: Resilient Children Skill: Remember
    Objective: 1.3

  2. 16)  In medieval times,
    A) children dressed and acted like adults.

    1. B)  clear awareness existed of children as vulnerable beings.
    2. C)  children were viewed as tabula rasas.

    D) childhood was not regarded as a distinct developmental period.

    Answer: B

    Page Ref: 12 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.4

  3. 17)  During the Reformation, the Puritans
    A) characterized children as innocent and close to angels.

B) regarded children as fully mature by the time they were 7 or 8 years old. C) recommended permissivechild-rearing practices.
D) believed that children were born evil and had to be civilized.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 12 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.4

  1. 18)  According to John Locke’s view, children begin A) with a soul tainted by original sin.
    1. B)  as nothing at all.
    2. C)  as noble savages.

    D) as evil and stubborn. Answer: B
    Page Ref: 12
    Skill: Understand Objective: 1.4

  2. 19)  John Locke opposed the use of A) praise as a reward.B) negativereinforcement. C) physicalpunishment. D) any form of discipline.

    Answer: C

    Page Ref: 12 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.4

  1. 20)  All contemporary child development theories view children as A) naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
    1. B)  passive and emotionally fragile.
    2. C)  adults in training.

    D) active, purposeful beings. Answer: D
    Page Ref: 13
    Skill: Understand

    Objective: 1.4

  2. 21)  Jean-Jacques Rousseau saw children as A) determining their own destinies.
    1. B)  blank slates to be filled by adult instruction.
    2. C)  tainted by original sin.

    D) passive and highly plastic.

    Answer: A

    Page Ref: 13 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.4

  3. 22)  Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasized __________ and __________. A) the normative approach; survival of the fittest
    B) noblesavages;physicalmaturation
    C) tabularasa;naturalselectionD) natural selection; survival of the fittest Answer: D
    Page Ref: 13
    Skill: Remember

    Objective: 1.4

  4. 23)  __________ is generally regarded as the founder of the child-study movement. A) John Locke

B) Jean-Jacques Rousseau C) CharlesDarwin
D) G. Stanley Hall

Answer: D

Page Ref: 13 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.4

24) Inspired by Charles Darwin’s work, G. Stanley Hall and his student, Arnold Gesell, A) laid the modern foundations of ethology.

  1. B)  developed the concept of sensitive periods in development.
  2. C)  devised theories based on evolutionary ideas.

D) constructed the first intelligence test. Answer: C
Page Ref: 13
Skill: Remember

Objective: 1.4

  1. 25)  Arnold Gesell
    A) was among the first to make knowledge about child development meaningful to parents.

    1. B)  viewed children as noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
    2. C)  concluded that child development follows the same general plan as human evolution.

    D) constructed the first successful intelligence test, together with his colleague, Alfred Binet.

    Answer: A

    Page Ref: 14 Skill: Remember Objective: 1.4

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