Test Bank For An Introduction to the History of Psychology 7th Edition by B. R. Hergenhahn

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Test Bank For An Introduction to the History of Psychology 7th Edition by B. R. Hergenhahn

Chapter_03

Multiple Choice

1. Events following the death of Aristotle created a situation in which people sought:​

  a.  ​answers to questions concerning problems of everyday living

  b.  ​the first principles or universals that underlie physical reality

  c.  ​philosophical certainty

  d.  ​a solution to Zeno’s paradox

ANSWER:   a

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   Prologue

2. The main target of skepticism was dogmatism. A dogmatist is anyone who:​

  a.  ​equates essences with verbal definitions

  b.  ​confuses names with real things

  c.  ​claims to have arrived at an indisputable truth

  d.  ​lives a life of excess instead of moderation

ANSWER:   c

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

3. In general, ____ promotes a suspension of belief in anything and ____ promotes a retreat from society.​

  a.  ​cynicism; skepticism

  b.  ​skepticism; cynicism

  c.  ​epicureans; stoics

  d.  ​stoics; epicureans

ANSWER:   b

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

4. The Skeptics suggested that by ____, one could avoid the frustration of being wrong.​

  a.  ​arriving at one’s beliefs very carefully

  b.  ​believing only in ideas held by the majority of people

  c.  ​following one’s own natural impulses

  d.  ​not believing in anything

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

5. What did the Skeptics use as their guide(s) for living?​

  a.  ​philosophical truth, feelings, and convention

  b.  ​philosophical truth, sensations, and convention

  c.  ​sensations, feelings, and philosophical truth

  d.  ​sensations, feelings, and convention

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

6. Which statement is most consistent with a Cynic’s point of view?​

  a.  ​People need rules and regulations by which to live their lives.

  b.  ​Anything natural is good.

  c.  ​Courage in the face of adversity is the highest virtue.

  d.  ​The only things worth living for are patriotism, sacrifices for others, and devotion to a common cause.

ANSWER:   b

DIFFICULTY:   applied

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

7. Who was given the nickname “Cynic,” and lived a self-sufficient, publicly outrageous life?​

  a.  ​Antisthenes

  b.  ​Gorgias

  c.  ​Diogenes

  d.  ​Epicurus

ANSWER:   c

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

8. Who preferred naturalistic explanations to supernatural ones and earned the title, “Destroyer of Religion”?​

  a.  ​Antisthenes

  b.  ​Gorgias

  c.  ​Diogenes

  d.  ​Epicurus

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

9. Hedonism, according to Epicurus, is:​

  a.  ​pleasure in having one’s basic needs satisfied and avoiding pain

  b.  ​avoiding pain at all costs

  c.  ​seeking extreme pleasure

  d.  ​attaining a relationship with a higher power

ANSWER:   a

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   After Aristotle

10. ​For the ____, courage in the face of danger was considered the highest virtue.

  a.  ​Neoplatonist

  b.  ​Epicurean

  c.  ​Stoic

  d.  ​Cynic

ANSWER:   c

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   Philosophy in Rome

11. For the Stoics, the basic moral choice a person makes is:​

  a.  ​to act or not to act in accordance with nature’s plan

  b.  ​to live or not to live in accordance with God’s will

  c.  ​to seek pleasure or to avoid pain

  d.  ​to follow one’s personal impulses or to conform to society’s values

ANSWER:   a

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   Philosophy in Rome

12. Neoplatonism is a philosophy that emphasized the most ____ aspects of Plato’s philosophy.​

  a.  ​empirical

  b.  ​empathetic

  c.  ​rational

  d.  ​mystical

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   Philosophy in Rome

NOTES:   new

13. According to Philo, the way to true knowledge is by:​

  a.  ​introspection of the innate truth

  b.  ​a purified, passive mind receiving divine illumination

  c.  ​engaging in active reason

  d.  ​combining empirical observation with rational deliberation

ANSWER:   b

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   Philosophy in Rome

14. Turning away from the empirical world and entering a union with the eternal things that dwell beyond the world of the flesh was characteristic of the good life for:​

  a.  ​Zeno of Citium

  b.  ​Epicurus

  c.  ​Diogenes

  d.  ​Plotinus

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   Philosophy in Rome

15. The religion in which individuals are caught in an eternal struggle between wisdom and correctness as well as ignorance and evil is called:​

  a.  ​Vedantism

  b.  ​mystery religions

  c.  ​Zoroastrianism

  d.  ​cult of Mithras

ANSWER:   c

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   Emphasis on Spirit

16. Jesus can be best thought of as a(n):​

  a.  ​philosopher with a focus on God

  b.  ​empathetic ruler

  c.  ​complex man with multifaceted goals

  d.  ​simple man with focused goals

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   applied

REFERENCES:   Emphasis on Spirit

NOTES:   new

17. Which of the following did St. Paul add to the Judaic tradition?​

  a.  ​One God created the universe.

  b.  ​God is omniscient, omnipresent, and omnipotent.

  c.  ​Hymans fell from a state of grace in the Garden of Eden.

  d.  ​God sacrificed his son to atone for our shared transgression, otherwise known as original sin, which allows humans to reunite with God.

ANSWER:   d

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   Emphasis on Spirit

18. The fact that St. Paul valued ____ would have been abhorrent to most Greek philosophers.​

  a.  ​faith above reason

  b.  ​reason above faith

  c.  ​intuition above empirical observation

  d.  ​Epicureanism above Stoicism

ANSWER:   a

DIFFICULTY:   applied

REFERENCES:   Emphasis on Spirit

19. Largely due to this man’s efforts, Christianity was defined by a single set of beliefs and documents.​

  a.  ​Constantine

  b.  ​St. Augustine

  c.  ​Thomas Aquinas

  d.  ​St. Paul

ANSWER:   a

DIFFICULTY:   factual

REFERENCES:   Emphasis on Spirit

20. What concerns were held by both St. Augustine and St. Jerome?​

  a.  ​The question of fate or free will

  b.  ​The influence that pagan philosophies held over Christians

  c.  ​The reconciliation of faith and reason

  d.  ​The quest for salvation by choosing good over evil

ANSWER:   b

DIFFICULTY:   conceptual

REFERENCES:   Emphasis on Spirit

NOTES:   new

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