Test Bank For An Introduction to Psychology, International Edition 4Th Edition by Jeffrey Nevid

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Test Bank For An Introduction to Psychology, International Edition 4Th Edition by Jeffrey Nevid

Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. 1. The process by which we receive, transform, and process stimuli is:  

a) sensation.

b) perception.

c) transduction.

d) reduction.

e) psychophysics.

ANS: a       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: factual

KEY: Identify

  1. 1.In contrast to sensation, perception involves:

a) converting external stimulation intro signals the brain can use.

b) channeling sensory information to the appropriate part of the brain for processing. 

c) converting sensory information into meaningful representations of the world. 

d) transforming information from the sensory organs to the brain. 

e) converting external stimulation into action potential. 

ANS: c       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 1-Explain the difference between sensation and perception. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.In the process of perception, the brain:  

a) senses the presence of objects in the world. 

b) produces experiences of vision, hearing, and so on. 

c) forms meaningful impressions by integrating sensory information. 

d) transforms sensory signals into sensations. 

e) converts external stimulation into neural signals. 

ANS: c       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 1-Explain the difference between sensation and perception. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.In the process of sensation, the brain:

a) makes sense of external stimulation. 

b) assembles information from various sensory organs into meaningful patterns.

c) forms meaningful representations of sensory information. 

d) transforms sensory stimuli into sensations. 

e) interprets the meaning of sensory data. 

ANS: d       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 1-Explain the difference between sensation and perception. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.The process of sensation enables us to _________, where the process of perception enables us _________.

a) sense the world around us; make sense of the world around us 

b) make sense of the world around us; sense the world around us

c) form meaningful representations of sensory information; experience the rich tapestry of colors and sounds 

d) transform sensory signals into sensations; convert external stimulation into neural signals

e) convert external stimulation into neural signals; transforms sensory signals into sensations

ANS: a       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: conceptual     OBJ: 1-Explain the difference between sensation and perception. KEY: Evaluate/Explain      

NOT: WWW

  1. 1.Psychophysics began with the work of which nineteenth-century German scientist(s)?

a) David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel

b) Hermann von Helmholtz and Ewald Hering

c) Wilhelm Wundt

d) Ernst Weber

e) Gustav Fechner

ANS: e       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: factual

KEY: Identify

  1. 1.Graduate student Shalanda Huffman studies how physical sources of stimulation relate to the physical experience of these stimuli. Huffman’s field of study is called:

a) subliminal perception.

b) perception.

c) parapsychology.

d) psychophysics.

e) sensory adaptation.

ANS: d       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: applied 

OBJ: 3-Define psychophysics. KEY: Define/Describe, Apply

  1. 1.Psychophysics is defined as the study of:  

a) the relationship between the characteristics of external stimuli and sensations. 

b) human perception.

c) the relationship between physics and psychology.   

d) perceptual disorders.  

e) sensory disorders.

ANS: a TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: factual OBJ: 3-Define psychophysics. KEY: Define/Describe NOT: WWW

  1. 1.A psychologist, Dr. Rhonda Somblay, conducts studies of psychophysics.  She is most likely studying:

a) how the intensity of a stimulus affects sensations.

b) how the brain pieces together sensory data to form meaningful perceptions.

c) how stimuli are converted by sensory receptors into neural signals.

d) the relationship between psychology and physics.

e) the process of sensory adaptation.

ANS: a      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: applied OBJ: 3-Define psychophysics KEY: Define/Describe, Apply 

  1. 1.Dr. Andrew Lee is conducting an experiment to determine how different intensities of light affect the sensations these stimuli produce. The field of study he is exploring is called:

a) psychomotor processing.

b) physiopsychology. 

c) psychophysics.

d) luminopsychology.

e) psychological adaptation.

ANS: c      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation       MSC: applied

KEY: Identify, Apply

  1. 1.An absolute threshold is:

a) the smallest amount of a stimulus that a person can reliably detect.

b) the maximum amount of a stimulus a person can tolerate.

c) the amount a stimulus must change for a person to detect a difference.

d) an amount of a stimulus so small, it is unable to be perceived.

e) an amount of a stimulus beyond what a person can tolerate.  

ANS: a      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: factual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Define/Describe

  1. 1.Regarding the absolute and difference thresholds, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) The amount a stimulus must change to detect a difference is given by a constant proportion of the original stimulus.

b) Just-noticeable difference is another term for difference threshold.

c) People differ in their absolute thresholds.

d) People are more sensitive to changes in pitch than to changes in volume.

e) The difference threshold is the same for each of the senses.

ANS: e      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.Which of the following absolute thresholds for taste is CORRECT?

a) Detecting a gram of salt dissolved in five gallons of water

b) Detecting a difference in tastes between two spots on the tongue, one-eighth of an inch apart

c) Detecting one teaspoon of sugar dissolved in two gallons of water

d) Detecting a teaspoon of vinegar mixed in with two gallons of water

e) Detecting the sweetness of a fruit while blindfolded

ANS: c      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Apply, Evaluate/Explain NOT: WWW

  1. 1.Weber’s law suggests that difference thresholds:

a) vary according to the individual.

b) are a constant proportion of the original stimulus.

c) are a constant quantity.

d) decrease as stimuli increase.

e) increase as stimuli decrease.

ANS: b      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: factual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Define/Describe

  1. 1.Difference thresholds are determined by a constant fraction of the magnitude of the original stimulus. This is the premise of:

a) Weber’s law.

b) selective attention theory.

c) Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

d) signal-detection theory.

e) the volley principle.

ANS: a      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: factual

KEY: Identify

  1. 1.Hans and Franz lift weights at their local gym. When their trainer adds a two-pound weight to Hans’s normal fifty-pound load, Hans immediately notices. However, when the same two-pound weight is added to Franz’s normal two-hundred-pound load, he isn’t aware of the extra weight. The difference in Hans’s and Franz’s experience is consistent with:

a) absolute threshold theory.

b) difference threshold theory.

c) Weber’s Law.

d) signal-detection theory.

e) Gestalt laws of perceptual organization.

ANS: c      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Define/Describe, Apply

  1. 1.The difference threshold is:    

a) the difference between an amount of stimulus too small to detect and an amount of stimulus too great to tolerate

b) the minimal difference between two stimuli that people can reliably detect.

c) the difference in how any two people tolerate a stimulus.  

d) the difference in how any two people are able to detect a minimal amount of a stimulus.

e) the phenomenon that everyone has a different threshold for a given stimulus.  

ANS:  b      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: factual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Define/Describe

  1. 1.Weber’s constant for the volume of sound is 1/10.  A car alarm is sounding off at 60 decibels. After five minutes, it is programmed to get louder. How loud does it have to be for people to perceive it as louder?

a) At least 61 decibels

b) At least 62 decibels

c) At least 65 decibels

d) At least 66 decibels

e) At least 70 decibels

ANS: d      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

KEY: Evaluate/Explain, Apply

  1. 1.”Make the TV louder,” said Paula. “I did,” said Jack, pointing at the remote. “Doesn’t sound louder to me,” said Paula.  “Does to me,” said Jack. Jack is failing to consider the discrepancy between his ______ and Paula’s.

a) Weber’s constant

b) subliminal difference

c) difference threshold

d) absolute threshold

e) absolute difference

ANS: c       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY:  Evaluate/Explain, Apply

  1. 1.According to Weber’s Law, a person would be MOST sensitive to changes in which sensation?

a) Loudness of sounds

b) Heaviness of weight

c) Saltiness of food

d) Brightness of lights

e) Pitch of sounds

ANS: e       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.A recipe requires ten grams of salt. According to Weber’s constant for saltiness, which is 1/5, how much more salt must a chef add to make the recipe noticeably saltier?

a) 0.2 gram

b) 2 grams

c) 5 grams

d) 10.2 grams

e) 10.5 grams

ANS: b       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain, Apply

  1. 1.The idea that the threshold for sensing a stimulus depends not only on the properties of the stimulus itself, but also on the level of background stimulation and characteristics of the perceiver, is explained by:

a) Weber’s law.

b) the volley principle.

c) opponent-process theory.

d) signal-detection theory.

e) sensory adaptation.

ANS: d       TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY:  Identify, Define/Describe

  1. 1.Which of the following is a psychological factor that influences a person’s threshold for determining a signal?

a) The sensitivity of her visual system

b) Her level of fatigue

c) Her physical health

d) Her level of alertness

e) Her level of motivation

ANS: e      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.If you are expecting a telephone call, you may be more likely to notice the telephone ringing while you are in the shower than if you were not expecting a call. This example is an illustration of:

a) signal-detection theory.

b) Weber’s law.

c) sensory adaptation.

d) opponent-process theory.

e) dual-process theory.

ANS: a      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain, Apply

  1. 1.Sensory adaptation occurs when:  

a) sensory systems become more sensitive to unchanging stimuli.

b) sensory systems become more sensitive to a stimulus as it changes.

c) sensory systems become less sensitive to unchanging stimuli.

d) sensory systems become less sensitive to a stimulus as it changes.

e) sensory systems become less efficient in processing stimuli.

ANS: c     TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: factual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Define/Describe

  1. 1.Other factors being equal, which sensory stimulus is LEAST likely to lead to sensory adaptation?

a) The wail of a loud car alarm

b) The sound of a grandfather clock ticking

c) The intense odors of a cattle farm

d) The pressure of wearing a new bracelet on one’s wrist

e) The temperature of water when one enters a pool

ANS: a      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain NOT: WWW

1.Repeated exposure to the same stimulus ______ leads to _____ sensitivity in our sensory systems.

a) always; reduced

b) always; no change in

c) sometimes; reduced

d) sometimes; no change in

e) sometimes; reduced or no change in

ANS: e      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.When Harold first enters his swimming pool, the water feels uncomfortably cold. Five minutes later, it feels comfortable to him. This is an example of:

a) convergence.

b) sensory adaptation.

c) selective attention.

d) accommodation.

e) just-noticeable difference.

ANS: b      TOP:  MOD: 3.1       REF: Sensing Our World: Basic Concepts of Sensation      MSC: applied

OBJ: 2-Define/describe/explain: absolute thresholds and difference thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation. KEY: Apply, Define/Describe

  1. 1.Regarding light and vision, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) Light is physical energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

b) The visible spectrum that humans perceive represents only a small portion of the full spectrum of “light.”

c) Human vision perceives wavelengths of light between approximately 300 and 750 nanometers.

d) X-rays, ultraviolet waves, and radio waves are portions of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum that humans cannot “see.”

e) Of the colors, red has the shortest wavelength.

ANS: e      TOP:  MOD: 3.2       REF: Vision: Seeing the Light       MSC: conceptual KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.A foreign object has entered Kiara’s eye, leaving a scratch on the transparent covering of her eye’s surface.  The part of Kiara’s eye that is affected is her:

a) pupil.

b) iris.

c) lens.

d) fovea.

e) cornea.

ANS: e       TOP:  MOD: 3.2       REF: Vision: Seeing the Light       MSC: applied

OBJ: 4-Identify the parts of the eye and ear; explain how our senses work.       KEY: Identify, Apply

  1. 1.Accommodation is the visual process by which: 

a) light comes in contact with the photoreceptors.

b) the iris expands or contracts to determine the amount of light that enters the eye.  

c) light enters the cornea and passes through the pupil and lens.  

d) the lens changes its shape to focus images more clearly on the retina.

e) the rods and cones convert light into neural signals.  

ANS: d       TOP:  MOD: 3.2       REF: Vision: Seeing the Light       MSC: conceptual

OBJ: 4-Identify the parts of the eye and ear; explain how our senses work.       KEY: Evaluate/Explain

  1. 1.Dr. Rhoden conducts animal experiments on visual perception. Rhoden wants to stop the animal’s pupil from changing size, so he paralyzes the:

a) cornea.

b) iris.

c) lens.

d) retina.

e) pupil.

ANS: b       TOP:  MOD: 3.2       REF: Vision: Seeing the Light       MSC: applied

OBJ: 4-Identify the parts of the eye and ear; explain how our senses work.       KEY: Identify, Apply

NOT: WWW

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