Test Bank For An Introduction To Brain And Behavior 5Th Ed By Kolb

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Test Bank For An Introduction To Brain And Behavior 5Th Ed By Kolb

Name: __________________________  Date: _____________

1.

_____ is the technique that allows researchers to label different neurons by marking them with distinct colors.

A)

Straining

B)

Defragmentation

C)

Brainbow

D)

Bluetooth

2.

Golgi staining makes use of _____ to stain neurons so they can be viewed under a microscope.

A)

cresyl violet

B)

silver nitrate

C)

pen ink

D)

squid ink

3.

Based on their observations of stained neurons, Golgi put forward the _____ hypothesis, whereas Cajal proposed the _____ theory.

A)

nerve net; neuron

B)

neuron; nerve net

C)

nerve net; glia

D)

neuron; glia

4.

The human central nervous system consists of approximately:

A)

86 billion neurons.

B)

1 trillion neurons.

C)

16 billion neurons.

D)

1 million neurons.

5.

Neurons:

A)

all have the same number of dendrites.

B)

usually have several axons.

C)

are all remarkably similar in size.

D)

have only one axon.

6.

The _____ is the core region of the cell that contains the nucleus.

A)

dendrite

B)

axon

C)

Golgi body

D)

soma

7.

_____ are branches extending out of a neuron’s cell membrane that allow it to collect information from other cells.

A)

Somas

B)

Axons

C)

Terminal buttons

D)

Dendrites

8.

_____ are single fibers that carry messages to other neurons.

A)

Dendrites

B)

Axons

C)

Terminal buttons

D)

Somas

9.

The junction of the axon and the soma of a neuron is called:

A)

the neural bridge.

B)

the axon hillock.

C)

the axon collateral.

D)

a synapse.

10.

The part of the axon that conveys information to other neurons is the:

A)

axon hillock.

B)

terminal button.

C)

Golgi body.

D)

soma.

11.

What is the MOST common sequence of information flow through a neuron?

A)

nucleus, axon, axon hillock, end foot

B)

dendrite, nucleus, axon hillock, axon

C)

dendrite, nucleus, axon, axon hillock

D)

dendrite, teleodendria, nucleus, axon

12.

What is the BEST analogy for a neuron?

A)

a multi-input computational device with many output wires

B)

a multi-input computational device with one output wire

C)

a single-input computational device with many output wires

D)

a single-input computational device with two output wires

13.

Which of the following are NOT a type of bipolar neuron?

A)

retinal neurons

B)

sensory neurons in the skin

C)

sensory neurons in muscle

D)

motor neurons

14.

_____ are also called association cells because they link up sensory and motor neurons.

A)

Interneurons

B)

Golgi neurons

C)

Glial cells

D)

Bipolar neurons

15.

_____ are a special type of interneuron found in the cerebellum.

A)

Purkinje cells

B)

Motor neurons

C)

Bipolar neurons

D)

Glial cells

16.

The simplest neuron is a(n):

A)

somatosensory neuron.

B)

motor neuron.

C)

bipolar neuron.

D)

interneuron.

17.

Which of the following is NOT characteristic of a pyramidal cell?

A)

long axon

B)

pyramid-shaped body

C)

two sets of dendrites

D)

one set of dendrites

18.

Interneurons:

A)

produce glial cells in the midbrain.

B)

are responsible for producing myelin sheets.

C)

are involved in processing sensory information and sending information to the motor neurons.

D)

are involved in processing motor feedback.

19.

Stellate cells are:

A)

sensory neurons.

B)

interneurons.

C)

motor neurons.

D)

not affected by either sensory input or motor output.

20.

Which of the following is NOT an interneuron?

A)

Purkinje cell

B)

stellate cell

C)

pyramidal cell

D)

Schwann cell

21.

Glial cells are primarily responsible for:

A)

the reception of sensory information.

B)

the support of neurons.

C)

the processing of information.

D)

the production of actions or motor outputs.

22.

For every neuron in the central nervous system there is (are) _____ glial cell(s).

A)

1

B)

5

C)

10

D)

100

23.

Some _____ act as “glue” that helps bind neurons together.

A)

glial cells

B)

pyramidal cells

C)

stellate cells

D)

Purkinje cells

24.

According to the text, which of the following statements is TRUE?

A)

Both some new neurons and many new glial cells are formed throughout life.

B)

Neither neurons nor glial cells continue to be formed after the first few years of life.

C)

Some new neurons are formed throughout life, but glial cells are not.

D)

Many new glial cells are formed throughout life, but new neurons are not.

25.

Which of the following are responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid?

A)

ependymal cells

B)

microglia

C)

astrocytes

D)

Schwann cells

26.

Ependymal cells are associated with:

A)

the blood–brain barrier.

B)

the production of cerebrospinal fluid.

C)

the production of myelin.

D)

the healing of damaged tissue.

27.

Hydrocephalus is usually caused by blockage at:

A)

the first ventricle.

B)

the lateral ventricle.

C)

the third ventricle.

D)

the fourth ventricle.

28.

_____ are glial cells that have nutritive and supportive functions.

A)

Ependymal cells

B)

Purkinje cells

C)

Telodendria

D)

Astrocytes

29.

_____ are tumors that begin in one part of the body and spread to another part of the body.

A)

Meningiomas

B)

Gliomas

C)

Metastatic tumors

D)

Gangliomas

30.

_____ are tumors that are often encapsulated and relatively easy to remove with surgery.

A)

Gliomas

B)

Meningiomas

C)

Metastatic

D)

Neuromas

31.

The blood–brain barrier is made up of _____ attached to neurons and blood vessels.

A)

astrocytes

B)

microglia

C)

Schwann cells

D)

ependymal cells

32.

Chris has been feeling very ill lately. He has had a severe headache for a week now and has been vomiting, has had trouble concentrating, and has started losing some of his vision. This morning he had a seizure. You tell Chris he should go to the hospital immediately because he probably has:

A)

the flu.

B)

multiple sclerosis.

C)

a brain tumor.

D)

Huntington disease.

33.

The fluid in which the cell’s internal structures are suspended is called:

A)

lysosome.

B)

endoplasmic reticulum.

C)

cerebrospinal fluid.

D)

intracellular fluid.

34.

Astroglia are NOT associated with:

A)

expansion of blood vessels.

B)

the blood–brain barrier.

C)

formation of scar tissue.

D)

removal of dead tissue.

35.

When neurons are continuously firing, they need a constant supply of glucose and oxygen to continue operating. This is achieved via _____, which signal blood vessels to expand and increase blood flow.

A)

Schwann cells

B)

ependymal cells

C)

astrocytes

D)

microglia

36.

_____ operate as part of the brain’s immune system.

A)

Astrocytes

B)

Microglia

C)

Oligodendroglia

D)

Ependymal cells

37.

Phagocytosis, or the breakdown of any foreign tissue or dead brain cells, is carried out by:

A)

astrocytes.

B)

microglial cells.

C)

ependymal cells.

D)

oligodendroglial cells.

38.

Microglia originates in:

A)

the ventricles.

B)

most areas of brain tissue.

C)

the blood.

D)

the cerebrospinal fluid.

39.

Greg accidentally cuts his fingertip with a knife. The next day he notices that his fingertip seems numb to the touch. Greg is very concerned about this, but you tell him not to worry because nerves in the _____ regenerate thanks to _____.

A)

central nervous system; oligodendroglial cells.

B)

central nervous system; Schwann cells

C)

peripheral nervous system; Schwann cells

D)

peripheral nervous system; oligodendroglial cells

40.

_____ help generate myelin in the central nervous system, whereas _____ help generate myelin in the peripheral nervous system.

A)

Schwann cells; oligodendroglial cells

B)

Astrocytes; Schwann cells

C)

Oligodendroglial cells; Schwann cells

D)

Oligodendroglial cells; microglial cells

41.

Myelin is produced by:

A)

oligodendroglia and Schwann cells.

B)

oligodendroglia and microglia.

C)

astroglia and Schwann cells.

D)

microglia and astroglia.

42.

Myelin around axons:

A)

speeds up transmission of information.

B)

slows down transmission as if by an insulator.

C)

has no effect on speed of transmission but acts as a protective coat on the fragile axon.

D)

has no effect on speed of transmission but allows the cell access to nutrition.

43.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A)

In the central nervous system Schwann cells serve as guideposts to show axons where to terminate when regeneration occurs.

B)

In the peripheral nervous system Schwann cells serve as signposts to guide axons to their appropriate end points.

C)

Schwann cells cannot help damaged axons, because neither nervous system can regenerate.

D)

Schwann cells are present only in the developing organism and thus have nothing to do with regeneration.

44.

Which three elements constitute more than 90% of a cell?

A)

oxygen, potassium, sodium

B)

oxygen, hydrogen, sodium

C)

oxygen, hydrogen, carbon

D)

carbon, hydrogen, sodium

45.

The smallest quantity of an element that retains the properties of an element is a(n):

A)

neutron.

B)

atom.

C)

proton.

D)

electron.

46.

The _____ is a structure that gathers, stores, and releases energy.

A)

nucleus

B)

endoplasmic reticulum

C)

mitochondrion

D)

Golgi body

47.

The _____ contain(s) the chromosomes and genes of a cell.

A)

nucleus

B)

Golgi body

C)

lysosomes

D)

endoplasmic reticulum

48.

The place in a cell where protein packages are wrapped and shipped is called:

A)

endoplasmic reticulum.

B)

mitochondrion.

C)

Golgi body.

D)

lysosome.

49.

Mitochondria and lysosomes are analogous to:

A)

power and transportation.

B)

transportation and power.

C)

fence and power.

D)

power and fence.

50.

_____ are involved in transporting molecules and help give the cell its shape.

A)

Axons

B)

Golgi bodies

C)

Endoplasmic reticulum

D)

Tubules

51.

Cell wastes are handled by:

A)

Golgi bodies.

B)

lysosomes.

C)

microtubules.

D)

endoplasmic reticulum.

52.

Which of the following refers to layers of membrane where proteins are assembled?

A)

lysosomes

B)

soma

C)

endoplasmic reticulum

D)

mitochondria

53.

The cell membrane is important because:

A)

it controls the amount of water in the cell.

B)

it regulates the concentration of salts on two sides of the membrane.

C)

it controls the amount of water in the cell and regulates the concentration of salts on two sides of the membrane.

D)

it forms myelin sheaths in the cell.

54.

The _____ help(s) regulate the concentration of different ions inside and outside of the neuron.

A)

cell membrane

B)

nuclear membrane

C)

microfilaments

D)

lysosomes

55.

All of the cells in our body are made from a book of blueprints contained in:

A)

growth cells in the pituitary gland, at the base of the brain.

B)

glial cells surrounding the neurons.

C)

chromosomes of each individual cell.

D)

pyramidal cells in the brain.

56.

Membranes of a cell are made of special molecules called:

A)

cytosols.

B)

phospholipids.

C)

hydrophilics.

D)

hydrophobics.

57.

The code for the synthesis of proteins is stored in:

A)

ribosomes.

B)

genes.

C)

microtubules.

D)

endoplasm.

58.

DNA is composed of four nucleotide bases. Which one of the following is NOT a nucleotide base?

A)

thymine

B)

adenine

C)

histamine

D)

cytosine

59.

Human cells contain:

A)

46 chromosomes.

B)

23 chromosomes.

C)

92 chromosomes.

D)

13 chromosomes.

60.

A chain of amino acids forms a:

A)

protein.

B)

carboxyl group.

C)

peptide bond.

D)

carbohydrate.

61.

Proteins are assembled in:

A)

the endoplasmic reticulum.

B)

Golgi bodies.

C)

the nucleus.

D)

the cytosol.

62.

A series of amino acids is called a:

A)

peptide bond.

B)

polypeptide chain.

C)

carboxyl group.

D)

side group.

63.

Humans utilize _____ different amino acids for the synthesis of proteins.

A)

100

B)

20

C)

300

D)

4000

64.

Golgi bodies package _____ and ship them to other parts of the neuron via _____.

A)

proteins; microtubules

B)

waste materials; microtubules

C)

proteins; filaments

D)

waste materials; lysosomes

65.

Golgi bodies essentially act as _____ for neurons.

A)

an administrative office

B)

a marketing department

C)

a postal service

D)

a repair shop

66.

An analogous term for receptor is:

A)

door.

B)

hinge.

C)

keyhole.

D)

doorknob.

67.

Protein molecules can:

A)

act as a gate.

B)

act as a pump.

C)

change shape.

D)

All of the answers are correct.

68.

Some membrane channels can selectively allow in one type of ion (e.g., K+) but not others. The ability to restrict passage to only certain ions largely depends on:

A)

where on the membrane the channel is.

B)

what type of neuron the channel is on.

C)

the size and shape of the channel.

D)

the pigmentation of the channel.

69.

Membrane channels are made up of:

A)

phospholipids.

B)

proteins.

C)

microtubules.

D)

carbohydrates.

70.

Humans have approximately:

A)

20,000 genes.

B)

75,000 genes.

C)

125,000 genes.

D)

175,000 genes.

71.

Expressed genetic traits of an individual are referred to as their:

A)

genotype.

B)

phenotype.

C)

wild type.

D)

mutation.

72.

The nucleotide sequence MOST common in a population is called the:

A)

homozygous allele.

B)

heterozygous allele.

C)

wild-type allele.

D)

mutant allele.

73.

The _____ chromosome pair determines our sexual characteristics.

A)

fifteenth

B)

twenty-first

C)

twenty-third

D)

eighty-seventh

74.

_____ means having two different alleles for the same trait.

A)

Homozygous

B)

Omnizygous

C)

Mutated

D)

Heterozygous

75.

_____ means having two identical alleles for the same trait.

A)

Homozygous

B)

Omnizygous

C)

Mutated

D)

Heterozygous

76.

In _____ both an allele’s own trait and that of the other allele in the gene pair are expressed completely.

A)

dominance

B)

incomplete dominance

C)

codominance

D)

cloning

77.

_____, caused by a genetic mutation, can help prevent malaria.

A)

Tay-Sachs disease

B)

Sickle-cell anemia

C)

Trisomy 21

D)

Vasectomy

78.

Abnormalities on chromosome _____ cause sickle-cell anemia.

A)

4

B)

17

C)

11

D)

24

79.

A child who has seizures, blindness, and degenerating motor and mental ability and who dies at an early age most likely has:

A)

Down syndrome.

B)

Huntington disease.

C)

Tay-Sachs disease.

D)

Parkinson disease.

80.

The mutation that leads to Tay-Sachs disease is recessive. Therefore, if a child’s parents both carry the recessive Tay-Sachs allele, the probability that the child will develop Tay-Sachs disease is:

A)

100 percent.

B)

50 percent.

C)

25 percent.

D)

75 percent.

81.

Because the gene that leads to Huntington disease is dominant, a child who has one parent with Huntington disease has a _____ chance of developing the disorder.

A)

50 percent

B)

100 percent

C)

25 percent

D)

75 percent

82.

A patient who shows abnormal involuntary movements and loss of memory most likely has:

A)

Tay-Sachs disease.

B)

Huntington disease.

C)

Alzheimer disease.

D)

Down syndrome.

83.

Ashley, a 36-year-old female, has recently had trouble controlling the movement of her arms. For example, sometimes her arms will flail about as if they are reaching for something even though she does not want them to. She has also started having memory problems and changes in her personality. Her father had similar symptoms in his thirties but died before he turned 40. You tell Ashley to go to the doctor because she MOST likely have:

A)

Parkinson disease.

B)

Huntington disease.

C)

multiple sclerosis.

D)

a brain tumor.

84.

In Huntington disease, as the number of CAG repeats on the HTT (huntingtin) gene exceeds 40:

A)

the earlier in life symptoms will begin.

B)

the less likely a person is to develop Huntington disease.

C)

the less severe the symptoms will be.

D)

the more likely the chances of contracting rabies.

85.

Down syndrome is caused by (an) extra _____ chromosome(s).

A)

twenty-third

B)

fifth

C)

twenty-first

D)

twenty-first and twenty-third

86.

Characteristic facial features, short stature, heart defects, and mental retardation are signs of:

A)

Alzheimer disease.

B)

Tay-Sachs disease.

C)

Down syndrome.

D)

Huntington disease.

87.

The simplest way to select for specific genetic traits in animals (e.g., dogs) is through the use of:

A)

cloning.

B)

selective breeding.

C)

transgenic techniques.

D)

gene therapy.

88.

Transgenic animals are produced by:

A)

knockout technology to inactivate a gene.

B)

cloning.

C)

addition of a gene to the genome.

D)

combining genes from different species.

89.

If you are interested in testing the role of a specific gene in a disorder, you can eliminate the gene and observe the effects using:

A)

knockout technology.

B)

knock-in technology.

C)

chimeric animals.

D)

cloning.

90.

If you want to study the role of a specific gene on a particular behavior, you could take the gene from one species and insert it into the genome of another species. This is:

A)

cloning.

B)

knockout technology.

C)

knock-in technology.

D)

use of chimeric animals.

91.

Chimeric animals are the result of:

A)

cloning.

B)

spontaneous mutations.

C)

adding a gene to the genome.

D)

combining genes from different species.

92.

One method that could be used to produce new tissue or organs for transplant to the original donor is:

A)

cloning.

B)

gene transfer.

C)

knock-in technique.

D)

selective breeding.

93.

The notion that two individuals with the exact same genes could end up developing differently is explained by:

A)

phenotypic plasticity.

B)

codominance.

C)

genetic mutation.

D)

recessive alleles.

94.

The concordance rates in identical twins for diseases like Alzheimer, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis is:

A)

100%.

B)

25%.

C)

between 90% and 100%.

D)

between 30% and 60%.

95.

_____ is the study of how the environment can influence the expression of genes.

A)

Transgenics

B)

Genotyping

C)

Epigenetics

D)

Prototyping

96.

Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which epigenetic mechanisms can influence the expression of a particular gene?

A)

ribosome modification

B)

histone modification

C)

DNA modification

D)

mRNA modification

97.

Differentiate between Santiago Ramón y Cajal’s and Camillo Golgi’s views on brain cell functioning.

98.

What are three major types of neurons? How are they functionally different?

99.

What are the major functions of ependymal cells?

100.

What are the five types of glial cells, and what are their primary functions?

101.

What are the three types of brain tumors? How do they differ from one another?

102.

What are the major functions of astroglia?

103.

What are the major functions of Schwann cells? How do they assist in the recovery from nerve damage?

104.

List the internal components of a cell.

105.

What functions do proteins contribute to cell function?

106.

List the functions of the cell nucleus.

107.

What role do Golgi bodies play inside of neurons?

108.

Differentiate between dominant and recessive genes.

109.

What is Huntington disease, and what are its genetic determinants?

110.

What is Down syndrome, and what are its genetic determinants?

111.

What is selective breeding, and how can it be used to select for specific traits? Give an example.

112.

How does genetic engineering help us understand the human condition?

113.

List the types of genetic engineering.

114.

What are the differences between knock-in and knockout mice?

115.

What is epigenetics? Why is studying it important?

116.

What is phenotypic plasticity?

117.

Match the letter to the correct structure on the neuron.

_____ 1.

cell body

_____ 2.

end foot

_____ 3.

axon

_____ 4.

dendrites

_____ 5.

dendrites of target neuron

_____ 6.

axons from other neurons

118.

Match the pictures to their name.

     _____ A)  microglial cell

     _____ B)  ependymal cell

     _____ C)  oligodendroglial cell

     _____ D)  Schwann cell

     _____ E)  astrocyte

119.

Match the cell structures to their name.

_____ 1.

nuclear membrane

_____ 2.

axon

_____ 3.

Golgi body

_____ 4.

cell membrane

_____ 5.

tubules

_____ 6.

microfilaments

_____ 7.

dendrite

_____ 8.

nucleus

_____ 9.

endoplasmic reticulum

_____ 10.

lysosomes

_____ 11.

dendritic spine

_____ 12.

mitochondrion

_____ 13.

intracellular fluid

Answer Key

1.

C

2.

B

3.

A

4.

A

5.

D

6.

D

7.

D

8.

B

9.

B

10.

B

11.

B

12.

B

13.

D

14.

A

15.

A

16.

C

17.

D

18.

C

19.

B

20.

D

21.

B

22.

A

23.

A

24.

A

25.

A

26.

B

27.

D

28.

D

29.

C

30.

B

31.

A

32.

C

33.

D

34.

D

35.

C

36.

B

37.

B

38.

C

39.

C

40.

C

41.

A

42.

A

43.

B

44.

C

45.

B

46.

C

47.

A

48.

C

49.

A

50.

D

51.

B

52.

C

53.

C

54.

A

55.

C

56.

B

57.

B

58.

C

59.

A

60.

A

61.

A

62.

B

63.

B

64.

A

65.

C

66.

C

67.

D

68.

C

69.

B

70.

A

71.

B

72.

C

73.

C

74.

D

75.

A

76.

C

77.

B

78.

C

79.

C

80.

C

81.

A

82.

B

83.

B

84.

A

85.

C

86.

C

87.

B

88.

C

89.

A

90.

C

91.

D

92.

A

93.

A

94.

D

95.

C

96.

A

97.

98.

99.

100.

101.

102.

103.

104.

105.

106.

107.

108.

109.

110.

111.

112.

113.

114.

115.

116.

117.

1. C; 2. F; 3. D; 4. A; 5. B; 6. E

118.

1. B; 2. E; 3. A; 4. C; 5. D

119.

1. D; 2. K; 3. G; 4. J; 5. I; 6. L; 7. A; 8. C; 9. E; 10. M; 11. B; 12. F; 13. H

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Digital item No Waiting Time Instant Download By: Gregory Pence ISBN-10: 0078038456 ISBN-13: 9780078038457 Language: English Authors: Gregory Pence Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

Test Bank For An Introduction To Brain And Behavior 5Th Ed By Kolb

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Digital item No Waiting Time Instant Download ISBN-13: 978-1464106019 ISBN-10: 1464106010

Test Bank For The Human Body in Health and Illness 5th Edition By Herlihy

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Digital item No Waiting Time Instant Download ISBN-10: 0323353541 ISBN-13: 978-0323353540

Test Bank For The Human Body In Health And Illness 4th Edition by Barbara Herlihy

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Digital item No Waiting Time Instant Download ISBN-13: 978-1416068426 ISBN-10: 1416068422

 

 

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