Test Bank For Abnormal Psychology Perspectives, 6th Edition By David J.A. Dozois

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Test Bank For Abnormal Psychology Perspectives, 6th Edition By David J.A. Dozois

Test Item File to accompany Abnormal Psychology: Perspectives, 6e

Chapter 02: Theoretical Perspectives on Abnormal Behaviour

Chapter 02 Multiple Choice Questions

1. An integrative approach to the case study of Hailey at the start of the chapter

A) would focus on how maternal postpartum depression factors combine with peer social stressors in triggering depression.

B) would focus on how genetic factors interact with atypical synthesis of neurotransmitters to produce depression.

C) would infer biological, psychological and social factors from Hailey’s developmental history and describe how these factors have interacted over time to produce depression.

D) would infer multiple biological and social factors from Hailey’s history and then describe how these factors have dynamically and reciprocally interacted over time.

E) would look at Hailey’s history of thoughts, feelings and behaviours and integrate these in an account of how and when her depression emerged.

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 02-1-01

Page-Reference: 25

Skill: Conceptual, application

Answer: C) would infer biological, psychological and social factors from Hailey’s developmental history and describe how these factors have interacted over time to produce depression.

2. A theory of abnormal behaviour

A) should only consider biological factors.

B) should be abandoned when shown to be incorrect, regardless of whether there is a better one available.

C) should not be considered useful if it has been shown to be incorrect, even if it generates further research.

D) should be judged solely on how well it matches current information.

E) should be abandoned only when there is a better one available.

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 02-1-02

Page-Reference: 26

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: E) should be abandoned only when there is a better one available.

3. Single-factor explanations

A) tend to identify risk factors rather than specific causes of dysfunctional behaviour.

B) emphasize one factor as being a major contributor to a particular psychological disorder.

C) are generally preferred over other explanations because of their simplicity.

D) often reflect a high level of current comprehensive knowledge of disorders.

E) view behaviour as the product of the interaction of several factors.

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 02-1-03

Page-Reference: 26

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) emphasize one factor as being a major contributor to a particular psychological disorder.

4. According to the text, scientific theories, such as those of abnormal psychology, are judged to be valuable for all of the following reasons EXCEPT:

A) they make predictions about aspects of the phenomena that had not previously been made.

B) they make it possible to specify the evidence necessary to deny the theory.

C) they are parsimonious.

D) they integrate most of what is presently known about the phenomena.

E) they describe the enduring truth about an issue.

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 02-1-04

Page-Reference: 27

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: E) they describe the enduring truth about an issue.

5. Theories

A) are never completely replaced in science because a better theory comes along.

B) are not facts, but rather the best approximation possible at the present time.

C) represent the known facts of current understanding.

D) can be proven correct, if enough evidence is gathered.

E) must be shown to be true by scientists.

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 02-1-05

Page-Reference: 27

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: B) are not facts, but rather the best approximation possible at the present time.

6. In science, experiments are set up not to prove the worth of a theory, but rather to reject what is called the

A) rejection hypothesis.

B) test hypothesis.

C) experimental hypothesis.

D) null hypothesis.

E) false hypothesis.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-06

Page-Reference: 26-27

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) null hypothesis.

7. According to the text, which of the following is NOT a general aim of theories about mental disorders?

A) To identify characteristics that precede and follow episodes of the problem behaviour

B) To predict the course of the disorder

C) To identify the factors that maintain the behaviour

D) To design effective treatments

E) To explain the origins of the problem behaviour

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-07

Page-Reference: 27

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) To identify characteristics that precede and follow episodes of the problem behaviour

8. The effects of untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) are

A) markedly increased blood levels of phenylalanine, resulting in obsessive-compulsive disorder in adulthood.

B) markedly increased blood levels of phenylalanine, resulting in severe mental retardation.

C) markedly increased blood levels of phenylalanine, resulting in severe dyslexia.

D) markedly increased blood levels of glycogen, resulting in severe dyslexia.

E) markedly increased blood levels of glycogen, resulting in severe mental retardation.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-08

Page-Reference: 27

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) markedly increased blood levels of phenylalanine, resulting in severe mental retardation.

9. The etiology of a disorder refers to

A) the proportion of the population affected by the disorder at any one time.

B) the number of new cases of a disorder, per 100,000 people per year.

C) the factors that maintain a disorder.

D) the causes or origins of a disorder.

E) the predicted path that people diagnosed with a disorder usually follow.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-09

Page-Reference: 27

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) the causes or origins of a disorder.

10. Clark and Beck (2010) have modified Aaron Beck’s cognitive formulation of depression and anxiety to include neurobiological correlates of cognitive therapy (CT): as CT modifies maladaptive cognitive processes, imaging studies show that these changes are accompanied by

A) reduced activation of subcortical regions and increased activation of cortical regions involved in cognitive control of emotion and reflective processes.

B) reduced activation of cortical regions involved in excessive thinking, with increased activation in subcortical regions involved in the relaxation response.

C) increased activation in interactive cortical and subcortical regions where emotional processing takes place.

D) reduced activity in the left parietal lobe which has been associated with hyper- focusing and the anxio-depressogenic response complex.

E) increased activity in the left parietal lobe, which has been associated with adaptive judgment and appropriate emotional responses.

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 02-1-10

Page-Reference: 27

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) reduced activation of subcortical regions and increased activation of cortical regions involved in cognitive control of emotion and reflective processes.

11. The best response to reductionism from an integrative perspective is

A) biological processes have psychological and social correlates and vice versa: these are different and equally important levels of analysis for understanding human behaviour.

B) biological processes affect people at the psychological and social levels of analysis and so it’s important to intervene at the most fundamental level.

C) the brain and the peripheral nervous system, but not the endocrine system, gives rise to all healthy and unhealthy psycho-social processes.

D) we must seek to identify the psychological processes that give rise to healthy and unhealthy brain states.

E) we must seek to identify the psycho-social processes that give rise to healthy vs. unhealthy brain states.

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 02-1-11

Page-Reference: 28-47

Skill: Application

Answer: A) biological processes have psychological and social correlates and vice versa: these are different and equally important levels of analysis for understanding human behaviour.

12. Biological theories of abnormal behavior have primarily implicated dysfunctions in

A) the brain (central nervous system), the peripheral nervous system, or the endocrine system.

B) the peripheral nervous system and the endocrine system, but not the brain.

C) the brain and the peripheral nervous system, but not the endocrine system.

D) the brain only.

E) the brain and the endocrine system, but not the peripheral nervous system.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-12

Page-Reference: 28

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) the brain (central nervous system), the peripheral nervous system, or the endocrine system.

13. Dementia, a deterioration in cognitive processes seen in disorders such as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s disease, has been linked to

A) spinal cord injury.

B) dysfunction of the reticular activating system of the midbrain.

C) dysfunction of the hindbrain.

D) the general loss or ineffective functioning of brain cells.

E) damage to the cerebellum.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-13

Page-Reference: 29

Skill: Factual

Answer: D) the general loss or ineffective functioning of brain cells.

14. It can be inferred from the chapter’s discussion that current theories about the brain bases of abnormal behaviour

A) have not seriously considered the roles of neurotransmitters and neuronal damage.

B) have given equal weight to the roles of neurotransmitters and neuronal damage.

C) have given more weight to the roles of neurotransmitters than to actual neuronal damage.

D) have only considered the role of one neurotransmitter, dopamine.

E) have given more weight to the role of actual neuronal damage than to neurotransmitters.

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 02-1-14

Page-Reference: 29

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) have given more weight to the roles of neurotransmitters than to actual neuronal damage.

15. Which of the following statements concerning neurotransmitters is NOT true?

A) The various neurotransmitters are spread fairly evenly throughout the brain, and are believed to play approximately equal roles in different functions (such as exploratory behaviours).

B) The majority of research concerning neurotransmitters has examined dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine and (more recently) gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA).

C) Neurotransmitters either inhibit or activate an impulse in the post-synaptic neuron.

D) Neurotransmitters carry their messages across a gap between neurons called a “synapse” or “synaptic cleft”.

E) Neurotransmitters are the chemical substances that carry messages from one neuron to the next.

Difficulty: 2

QuestionID: 02-1-15

Page-Reference: 29-30

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) The various neurotransmitters are spread fairly evenly throughout the brain, and are believed to play approximately equal roles in different functions (such as exploratory behaviours).

16. Which of the following is NOT a manner in which disturbances in neurotransmitter systems can result in abnormal behaviour?

A) Having certain neurotransmitters working in brain circuits not responsive to those transmitters

B) Having an excess or deficit in the amount of the transmitter-deactivating substance in the synapse

C) Having too much or too little of the neurotransmitter produced or released into the synapse

D) Having too few or too many receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neurons

E) Having the process of reuptake (drawing released neurotransmitters back into the releasing axon) be too rapid or too slow

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 02-1-16

Page-Reference: 29

Skill: Factual

Answer: A) Having certain neurotransmitters working in brain circuits not responsive to those transmitters

17. An experiment by Canadian neurophysiologist Bryan Kolb and his colleagues demonstrated that the offspring of rats raised in a complex environment exhibited

A) decreased synaptic space on the neurons in the their cerebral cortex.

B) increased synaptic space on the neurons in their cerebral cortex.

C) an increase in the speed of neuronal transmission.

D) increased numbers of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

E) a decrease in the speed of neuronal transmission.

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 02-1-17

Page-Reference: 31

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) increased synaptic space on the neurons in their cerebral cortex.

18. Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding brain plasticity?

A) Behaviour affects neurotransmitter activity

B) Brain plasticity can be influenced by a number of experiences that occur pre- and post-natally through hormones, diet, aging, stress, disease, and maturation

C) Any manipulation that produces an enduring change in behaviour leaves an anatomical footprint in the brain

D) Environmental events and responses to those events might contribute to the development of schizophrenia

E) Brain plasticity is possible only until middle-adolescence, after which the brain remains relatively stable

Difficulty: 3

QuestionID: 02-1-18

Page-Reference: 31

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) Brain plasticity is possible only until middle-adolescence, after which the brain remains relatively stable

19. The autonomic nervous system consists of

A) the somatic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system.

B) the somatic nervous system and the parasomatic nervous system.

C) the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

D) the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

E) the somatic nervous system and the endocrine system.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-19

Page-Reference: 31-32

Skill: Factual

Answer: C) the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

20. The Canadian physician Hans Selye established the area of study now known as

A) biofeedback.

B) stress physiology.

C) comparative psychology.

D) neuropsychology.

E) behavioural genetics.

Difficulty: 1

QuestionID: 02-1-20

Page-Reference: 32

Skill: Factual

Answer: B) stress physiology.

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