Test Bank For Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach, 6th Edition International Edition by David Barlow

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Test Bank For Abnormal Psychology An Integrative Approach, 6th Edition International Edition by David Barlow

CHAPTER 2: CONCEPTUALIZING ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. The best description of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that it is based on

a.

biological and psychological causes.

b.

biological causes only.

c.

learned helplessness and social learning theory.

d.

the physical structure and chemical processes of the brain.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.3.e

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

2.Within the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology, learned helplessness is considered a(n) ______    dimension.

a.

biological

b.

psychological

c.

emotional

d.

psychological

ANS: B DIF: Moderate OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.3.e

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

3.The basis of the multidimensional integrative approach to understanding psychopathology is that each dimension (psychological, biological, emotional, etc.)

a.

operates independently.

b.

is sufficient to cause pathology.

c.

builds on the dimension that precedes it.

d.

is influenced by the other dimensions.

ANS: D DIF: Easy OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.3.e

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

4.Your uncle spent most of his teen years in a hospital undergoing treatment for a severe physical illness. As an adult, he is rather shy and withdrawn, particularly around women. He has been diagnosed with social phobia, which you believe is entirely due to lack of socialization during his teen years. Your theory or model of what caused his phobia is ________.

a.

multidimensional

b.

integrative

c.

one-dimensional

d.

biological

ANS: C DIF: Easy OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.3.e

MSC:TYPE: Applied

5.According to the multidimensional integrative approach to psychopathology, the following statement is true for most psychological disorders:

a.

If one monozygotic twin has a particular disorder, the other twin will definitely have the disorder as well

b.

Monozygotic twins are no more likely to share psychological disorders than any other siblings

c.

Monozygotic twins are no more likely to share disorders than any other two people selected at random from the population

d.

If one monozygotic twin has a particular psychological disorder, the other twin is more likely to have the disorder than the rest of the population

ANS: D DIF: Moderate OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.3.e

MSC:TYPE: Applied

6.One of the problems with adopting a one-dimensional biological causal model of abnormality is

a.

it ignores the contributions of psychological and sociocultural factors to the disorder.

b.

it ignores any interactions with other contributing factors.

c.

it ignores any environmental influences on the disorder.

d.

all of these

ANS: D DIF: Easy OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.3.e

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

7.Amanda is 12 years old, and her sister Samantha is five years old. While riding in a car with their parents, the girls witness a major automobile accident where a number of people are injured. The girls react very differently to the accident. This is probably due to

a.

biological differences.

b.

developmental differences.

c.

psychological differences

d.

sociocultural differences

ANS: B DIF: Moderate OBJ: 1; APALO: 1.2.a(4)

MSC:TYPE: Applied

8.The most accurate way to think of genes is that they

a.

set boundaries for our development.

b.

determine both our physical and psychological characteristics.

c.

determine physical but not psychological characteristics.

d.

actually have very little to do with any of the characteristics that we display.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

KEY:WWWMSC:TYPE: Factual

9.Referring to behavior and personality as polygenic means that both are

a.

influenced by only a few genes, but each has a large effect.

b.

influenced by many genes, with each individual gene contributing a relatively small effect.

c.

influenced by individual genes only rarely.

d.

a result of our genetic structure only.

ANS: B DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

10.The procedures referred to as quantitative genetics are used to

a.

determine the effects of multiple genes.

b.

provide genetic counseling.

c.

correct genetic abnormalities.

d.

test the multidimensional integrative model.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

11.Most psychological disorders appear to be influenced by many individual genes rather than caused by one single gene, a process referred to as ________.

a.

multigenic

b.

polygenic

c.

unigenic

d.

morphogenic

ANS: B DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

12.Inga is a charming and intelligent young lady who is well-liked by family and friends. Approximately ______ of Inga’s enduring personality traits and cognitive abilities can be attributed to genetic influence.

a.

25%

b.

50%

c.

75%

d.

100%

ANS: B DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Applied

13.The most recent estimates are that genetics contribute approximately __________ to the development of personality characteristics such as shyness or activity level.

a.

10-20%

b.

30-50%

c.

75-85%

d.

nothing

ANS: B DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

14.According to recent estimates, genetic contributions to the development of most psychological disorders are __________________.

a.

below 50%

b.

above 50%

c.

different for each disorder (estimates range from 0 to 100%)

d.

nonexistent

ANS: A DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

KEY:WWWMSC:TYPE: Factual

15.Recent evidence regarding the genetic influence on most psychological disorders has shown that

a.

single genes are usually responsible for psychological disorders.

b.

genes that influence psychopathology are usually recessive.

c.

there is no evidence that genes influence psychopathology.

d.

multiple genes interact, with each gene contributing a small effect.

ANS: D DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

16.In the diathesis-stress model, “diathesis” refers to

a.

an inherited disorder.

b.

conditions in the environment that can trigger a disorder depending upon how severe the stressors are.

c.

an inherited tendency or condition that makes a person susceptible to developing a disorder.

d.

the inheritance of multiple disorders.

ANS: C DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

17.In the diathesis-stress model, “stress” refers to

a.

life events, in combination with an inherited tendency, that trigger a disorder.

b.

inherited tendencies, in combination with life events, that trigger a disorder.

c.

defective genes.

d.

exposure to very unusual and extreme environmental conditions.

ANS: A DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.d

KEY:WWWMSC:TYPE: Conceptual

18.According to the diathesis-stress model, psychopathology is the result of the

a.

interaction between normal and defective or damaged genes.

b.

stress level of an individual and how stress is managed in a person’s life.

c.

family history of an individual.

d.

interaction of an inherited tendency and events in a person’s life.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

19.According to the diathesis-stress model, monozygotic twins raised in the same household will

a.

not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their diathesis.

b.

have the same disorders because their diathesis and stress are exactly the same.

c.

not necessarily have the same disorders because of potential differences in their stress.

d.

have no more likelihood of sharing a disorder than any other two randomly selected individuals from the population.

ANS: C DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

20.According to the diathesis-stress model,

a.

mental disorders will always develop given a certain level of stress.

b.

once a diathesis for a particular disorder is inherited, the disorder will eventually develop.

c.

an individual’s inherited tendencies are not affected by stressful life events he or she encounters.

d.

it is possible to inherit a diathesis and never develop a disorder.

ANS: D DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

21.The model that describes the development of psychopathology as a combination of an inherited predisposition and the events that have occurred in the individual’s life is called _____________.

a.

diathesis-stress

b.

genetic

c.

bio-behavioral

d.

psychoanalytic

ANS: A DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

22.In a landmark study by Caspi et. al. (2003), researchers studied the stressful life events and genetics of 847 individuals. For individuals who had at least four stressful life events, the risk of major depression

a.

remained unchanged regardless of genetic makeup.

b.

doubled if they possessed two short alleles of the gene being studied.

c.

was reduced by half if they possessed two short alleles of the gene being studied.

d.

was entirely related to the genetic makeup and not the number of life stressors.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

23.Recent studies such as Caspi (2003) and Hariri (2002) demonstrate that psychopathology and behavior in general are the result of

a.

interactions between our genetics and environment.

b.

environmental influences more than genetics.

c.

genetics more than environmental influences.

d.

neurotransmitters.

ANS: A DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.d(1)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

24.The idea that our inherited tendencies influence the probability that we will encounter stressful life events is a characteristic of the _________________.

a.

diathesis-stress model

b.

reciprocal gene-environment model

c.

genetic model

d.

psycho-social model

ANS: B DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

25.John has inherited a personality trait that makes him more likely to keep to himself than to socialize. As a result, he does not have many friends and spends a lot of time alone. If John were to develop depression, the model that would probably best explain this situation and the cause of his depression is ______________.

a.

diathesis-stress

b.

biological

c.

reciprocal gene-environment

d.

interpersonal

ANS: C DIF: Difficult OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

KEY:WWWMSC:TYPE: Applied

26.Some people may be genetically predisposed to seek out difficult relationships. These difficult relationships may contribute to their experience of depression. This is an example of the ________.

a.

diathesis-stress model

b.

reciprocal gene-environment model

c.

genetic model

d.

quantitative genetics model

ANS: B DIF: Moderate OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.a(3)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

27.Research studies using the procedure called “cross fostering” have shown that genetically emotional and reactive young animals raised by calm mothers tended to be

a.

calm.

b.

emotional and reactive.

c.

calm but emotional and reactive when raising their own young.

d.

emotional and reactive but calm when raising their own young.

ANS: A DIF: Easy OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.d(1)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

28.Cross-fostering studies indicate that the environmental effects of early parenting

a.

had no effect on any genetic contribution to be reactive to stress.

b.

seem to override any genetic contribution to be reactive to stress.

c.

had no effect on future generations in the expression of personality traits or temperament.

d.

had random effects on any genetic contribution to be reactive to stress.

ANS: B DIF: Difficult OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.d(1)

KEY:WWWMSC:TYPE: Conceptual

29.Looking at the findings of many cross-fostering studies (Francis et al., 1999, Suomi, 1999, Tienari et al., 1994) it appears that positive interventions such as good parenting in early life may

a.

have little effect in terms of preventing psychopathology in those genetically predisposed to such conditions.

b.

dramatically change the genetics of individuals genetically predisposed to psychopathology.

c.

have a greater effect on future generations than on the individual exposed to the “good parenting.”

d.

override the genetically influenced tendency to develop psychopathology in later life.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.d(1)

MSC:TYPE: Conceptual

30.Some of the most recent research studies regarding genetic vs. environmental causes of disorders in animals and humans have suggested

a.

genetic influences are greater than originally observed because positive environmental conditions do not prevent disorders.

b.

genetics and the environment share equal roles in the development of all psychological disorders.

c.

the relative contributions of genetics and the environment in the development of psychological disorders are different for lower animals than for humans.

d.

genetic influences may have been overstated by previous studies, i.e., without sufficient environmental stress, the genetic predisposition may never be activated.

ANS: D DIF: Difficult OBJ: 2; APALO: 1.2.d(1)

MSC:TYPE: Factual

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