Test Bank For Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka

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ISBN-10: 0205965024 ISBN-13: 978-0205965021

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Test Bank For Abnormal Psychology 16th Edition By Butcher – Hooley Mineka

Chapter 3: Causal Factors and Viewpoints

Multiple-Choice Questions

3.1-1. Understanding the causes of mental disorders is important because

a. effective treatment is not possible without such an understanding.

b. classification of disorders cannot be done without such information.

c. such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.

d. disagreements about the causes of psychopathology have long limited the advancements made in the study of abnormal psychology.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-1

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.

3.1-2. Dr. Fox studies the causes of depression. In other words, she looks at factors that play a role in the ________ of depression.

a. etiology

b. epidemiology

c. prevalence

d. resiliency

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-2

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. etiology

3.1-3. Etiology is

a. a condition that tends to maintain maladaptive behavior.

b. the causal pattern of a disorder.

c. a predisposition toward developing a disorder.

d. a condition that makes it less likely a person will experience the negative consequences of stress.

Difficulty: 1

Question ID: 3.1-3

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. the causal pattern of a disorder.

3.1-4. In order to develop chicken pox, one must be exposed to the virus that causes chicken pox. Note, however, that not everyone who is exposed to the virus is affected. In other words, the virus is a

a. risk factor.

b. necessary cause.

c. sufficient cause.

d. contributory cause.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-4

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior 

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. necessary cause.

3.1-5. While having a gene for Parkinson’s disease guarantees that Parkinson’s disease will develop, this is not the only factor that can lead to Parkinson’s disease. In other words, the presence of the gene is a ________, but not a ________.

a. risk factor; sufficient cause

b. sufficient cause; necessary cause

c. necessary cause; risk factor

d. contributory cause; sufficient cause

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-5

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: b. sufficient cause; necessary cause

3.1-6. If having a gene for Parkinson’s disease guarantees that Parkinson’s disease will develop, the presence of the gene can be described as a

a. risk factor.

b. necessary cause.

c. sufficient cause.

d. contributory cause.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-6

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. sufficient cause.

3.1-7. Suppose that the presence of a particular gene is a necessary cause for the occurrence of schizophrenia. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

a. The gene is also a sufficient cause for the occurrence of schizophrenia.

b. There are other things besides this gene that can cause schizophrenia.

c. Most people with schizophrenia will have that gene.

d. A person with that gene may or may not become schizophrenic.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-7

Page Ref: 55

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. A person with that gene may or may not become schizophrenic.

3.1-8. Childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. Childhood abuse would best be described as a

a. necessary contributory cause.

b. proximal contributory cause.

c. reinforcing contributory cause.

d. distal contributory cause.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-8

Page Ref: 56

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior/Necessary, Sufficient, and Contributory Causes

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: d. distal contributory cause.

3.1-9. Karen was sexually abused by her father at the age of 5. She developed a severe separation anxiety reaction whenever her mother tried to leave. As an adult,

Karen developed a dissociative disorder due to the same abuse. This is an example of how the same factor, in this case abuse, can be

a. both a sufficient and a necessary cause.

b. both a reinforcing contributory cause and a punishing contributory cause.

c. both a primary and a secondary process.

d. both a proximal and a distal causal factor.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-9

Page Ref: 56

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: d. both a proximal and a distal causal factor.

3.1-10. A couple is in counseling. She states that she drinks because he rejects her. He states that he rejects her because she drinks. It appears that in this example of bidirectionality

a. the drinking is probably the actual predisposing cause for the problems in this marriage.

b. the rejection is probably the actual predisposing cause for the problems in this marriage.

c. the drinking and rejection influence and maintain each other.

d. the drinking and rejection are caused by another third variable unknown to the couple.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-10

Page Ref: 56–57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Applied

Answer: c. the drinking and rejection influence and maintain each other.

3.1-11. A diathesis can best be described as a

a. proximal necessary cause.

b. sufficient cause.

c. contributory cause.

d. proximal causal factor.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-11

Page Ref: 57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. contributory cause.

3.1-12. A predisposition toward developing a disorder

a. necessarily is biological.

b. is called a diathesis.

c. increases the likelihood of developing any given disorder by 50%.

d. necessarily is a psycho-social stressor.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-12

Page Ref: 57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: b. is called a diathesis.

3.1-13. In the diathesis-stress model, a stressor is

a. a distal, sufficient cause of a mental disorder.

b. a necessary or contributory cause that is distal from the onset of symptoms.

c. a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms.

d. a biological vulnerability.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-13

Page Ref: 57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms.

3.1-14. In the diathesis-stress model, a diathesis is

a. a distal necessary or contributory cause of a mental disorder.

b. a sufficient cause that is distal from the onset of symptoms.

c. a necessary or contributory cause that is proximal to the onset of symptoms.

d. a biological vulnerability that virtually guarantees the development of the disorder.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-14

Page Ref: 57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: a. a distal necessary or contributory cause of a mental disorder.

3.1-15. Suppose that low self-esteem is a diathesis for developing depression later in life. This means that

a. people who currently are depressed will have low self-esteem.

b. low self-esteem is a proximal trigger for depression.

c. people with low self-esteem have a predisposition for developing depression.

d. the psychological processes associated with low self-esteem will always trigger depression.

Difficulty: 3

Question ID: 3.1-15

Page Ref: 57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Conceptual

Answer: c. people with low self-esteem have a predisposition for developing depression.

3.1-16. The loss of a parent may be

a. a stressor.

b. a diathesis.

c. a diathesis and/or a stressor.

d. Neither a diathesis nor a stressor.

Difficulty: 2

Question ID: 3.1-16

Page Ref: 57

Topic: Causes and Risk Factors for Abnormal Behavior

Skill: Factual

Answer: c. a diathesis and/or a stressor.

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