Test Bank For A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition

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ISBN-13: 978-1305630048 ISBN-10: 1305630041

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Test Bank For A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition

1. Define mechanism and describe how the idea of mechanism affected and was affected by physics, concepts of God, and the methods and findings of science. How was the concept of mechanism applied to human beings?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​

POINTS:   1

2. Define determinism and reductionism and describe their relationship to the development of clocks and automata. Why was the mechanical clock the ideal metaphor for the spirit of mechanism?​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​

POINTS:   1

3. Describe Descartes’ views of the mind-body problem and his major contributions to the beginnings of modern science, particularly psychology.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​

POINTS:   1

NOTES:   WWW

4. Define positivism, materialism, and empiricism and discuss the contributions of each to the emerging science of psychology.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​

POINTS:   1

5. Describe the general contributions of empiricism to psychology, supporting your selection of each contribution with specific examples from the thought of Locke, Hartley, James Mill, and John Stuart Mill.​

ANSWER:   Answer not provided.​

POINTS:   1

NOTES:   WWW

6. The doctrine that natural processes are mechanically determined and capable of explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry is ____.​

  a.  ​reductionism

  b.  ​materialism

  c.  ​mechanism

  d.  ​empiricism

  e.  ​positivism

ANSWER:   c

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

NOTES:   WWW

7. According to the textbook, the dominant idea of the 17th century was ____.​

  a.  ​Zeitgeist

  b.  ​entertainment

  c.  ​water

  d.  ​mechanism

  e.  ​making it to the 18th century

ANSWER:   d

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

8. The Zeitgeist of 17th- to 19th-century Europe and of the United States was marked by ____.​

  a.  ​scientific revolution

  b.  ​political revolution

  c.  ​determinism

  d.  ​humanism

  e.  ​mechanism

ANSWER:   e

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

9. The theories of mechanism that invoke the movement of atoms to explain the universe were developed by ____.​

  a.  ​Locke and Berkeley

  b.  ​La Mettrie and Condillac

  c.  ​Newton and Hume

  d.  ​Newton and Galileo

  e.  ​Galileo and Copernicus

ANSWER:   d

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

10. Which of the following ideas has psychology borrowed from natural physics?​

  a.  ​effects are predictable and measurable

  b.  ​the nature of human beings is basically good, moving toward self-actualization

  c.  ​the paradigm of the source or identity of “cause”

  d.  ​the laws of association

  e.  ​the deductive method of logic

ANSWER:   a

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Spirit of Mechanism

NOTES:   WWW

11. What invention was considered the perfect metaphor for the “spirit of mechanism”?​

  a.  ​automobile

  b.  pneumatic pressure​

  c.  ​metronome

  d.  ​clock

  e.  ​computer

ANSWER:   d

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

12. The doctrine that acts are determined by past events is ____.​

  a.  ​reductionism

  b.  ​determinism

  c.  ​mechanism

  d.  ​materialism

  e.  ​positivism

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

13. The doctrine that explains phenomena on one level (such as complex ideas) in terms of phenomena on another level (such as simple ideas) is ____.​

  a.  ​reductionism

  b.  ​determinism

  c.  ​mechanism

  d.  ​positivism

  e.  ​materialism

ANSWER:   a

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

14. Seventeenth century philosophers and scientists argued that like clocks and the universe, ____ are regular, predictable, observable and measurable.​

  a.  ​God and/or other deities

  b.  ​nonconscious processes

  c.  ​human beings

  d.  ​cognitive processes

  e.  ​characteristics of self-actualization

ANSWER:   c

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

15. ____ are mechanized figures that could almost perfectly duplicate the movements of living things.​

  a.  ​Elements

  b.  ​Automata

  c.  ​Psychomata

  d.  ​Mannequins

  e.  ​Robots

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

16. Philosophers and scientists joined in agreement that ____.​

  a.  ​psychology must be an independent science

  b.  ​there is both an unconscious and a nonconscious

  c.  ​human functioning and behavior are governed by mechanical laws

  d.  ​experimental and quantitative methods could be applied to the study of human nature

  e.  ​the dictates of religious figures about human behavior had to be countered and/or refuted

ANSWER:   d

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

NOTES:   WWW

17. ____ was the first successful demonstration of artificial intelligence.​

  a.  ​Galileo’s telescope

  b.  ​Babbage’s calculating machine

  c.  ​La Mettrie’s self-winding watch

  d.  ​Descartes’s automata

  e.  ​Newton’s clocks

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

18. Contemporary cognitive psychologists’ computer model of artificial intelligence is a direct descendant of ____.​

  a.  ​Babbage’s calculating machine

  b.  ​La Mettrie’s self-winding watch

  c.  ​Descartes’s automata

  d.  ​Newton’s clocks

  e.  ​Bessel’s personal equations

ANSWER:   a

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

19. Who published a clear explanation of how the calculating machine functioned and pointed out its potential use and implications?​

  a.  ​Babbage

  b.  ​La Mettrie

  c.  ​Lovelace

  d.  ​Descartes

  e.  ​Locke

ANSWER:   c

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Clockwork Universe

20. The pursuit of knowledge through the observation of nature and the attribution of all knowledge to experience is ____.​

  a.  ​mentalism

  b.  ​empiricism

  c.  ​positivism

  d.  ​materialism

  e.  ​None of the choices are correct.

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

21. Empiricism attributes all knowledge to ____.​

  a.  ​experience

  b.  ​objectivity in methods

  c.  ​overt behavior

  d.  ​environmental influences

  e.  ​reinforcement schedules

ANSWER:   a

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

NOTES:   WWW

22. Descartes was significant to psychology as a science because he helped liberate ____.​

  a.  ​science from the stranglehold of theology

  b.  ​science from the grasp of philosophy

  c.  ​philosophy from the clutches of theology

  d.  ​science from the dictates of government

  e.  ​psychology from the dictates of science

ANSWER:   a

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

23. Who can be said to have inaugurated the era of modern psychology?​

  a.  ​Babbage

  b.  ​Descartes

  c.  ​La Mettrie

  d.  ​Locke

  e.  ​Comte

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

24. In the 20th century, Carl Jung based important decisions on his dreams. A 17th-century predecessor in this practice was ____.​

  a.  ​Newton

  b.  ​Galileo

  c.  ​Freud

  d.  ​Descartes

  e.  ​Spinoza

ANSWER:   d

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

25. For Descartes, the application of mathematical principles to sciences would produce ____.​

  a.  ​theorems of human nature

  b.  ​laws of physics

  c.  ​principles

  d.  ​religious conviction

  e.  ​certainty of knowledge

ANSWER:   e

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

26. In the 20th century, Hull described and explained behavior by mathematical formulas, axioms, and postulates. Thus, he illustrated whose notion that certainty of knowledge is accomplished by the application of mathematics to science?​

  a.  ​Kepler’s

  b.  ​Descartes’s

  c.  ​Berkeley’s

  d.  ​Locke’s

  e.  ​John Stuart Mill’s

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Beginnings of Modern Science

NOTES:   WWW

27. The question of the distinction between mental and physical qualities refers to ____.​

  a.  ​the bipartisan problem

  b.  ​the freethinking problem

  c.  ​the mind-body problem

  d.  ​positivism

  e.  ​theology

ANSWER:   c

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

28. Before Descartes, the accepted point of view was that the interaction between mind and body was essentially unidirectional, that ____.​

  a.  ​the body influenced the mind

  b.  ​the mind influenced the body

  c.  ​the soul influenced both the body and mind

  d.  ​the mind and body influenced each other

  e.  ​the vital force influenced both the mind and the body

ANSWER:   b

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

29. Descartes’s dualism was novel in its emphasis on the ____.​

  a.  ​interaction between mind and spirit

  b.  ​influence of the mind on the body

  c.  ​influence of the body on the mind

  d.  ​parallel but non-interacting functioning of the mind and body

  e.  ​predominance of unconscious mental forces

ANSWER:   c

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

30. Descartes argued that all processes are functions of the body except ____.​

  a.  ​reflexes

  b.  ​will

  c.  ​perception

  d.  ​sensation

  e.  ​thought

ANSWER:   e

POINTS:   1

REFERENCES:   The Contributions of Descartes: Mechanism and the Mind-Body Problem

NOTES:   WWW

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