Test Bank For A History and Philosophy of Sport and Physical Education 6Th Edition By Robert Mechikoff

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Test Bank For A History and Philosophy of Sport and Physical Education 6Th Edition By Robert Mechikoff

Test Bank Chapter 2

Sumer, Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica

Multiple Choice

1.What cultural interests do ancient and modern civilizations share 

in common?

A. admiring athletic ability and physical fitness.

B. participating in athletic competition.

C. the desire to play.

D. All of the above.

E. None of the above.

Answer: D

2.Historians, sociologists, and anthropologists have long noted the 

significance of physical ability and physical expression. As a 

result, they have reached which of the following conclusion:

A. The quest for survival during ancient times–and 

    modern time–was and is in some way facilitated in our 

    desire to play.

B. Play was indeed important, but only members of the aristocracy 

     were permitted to play. Children who were not members of the 

    aristocracy were prohibited from engaging in play.

C. The human race evolved, not because of anything that physical 

    ability and the expression of play may have contributed, but due 

    to mere chance and luck and nothing more.

D. Physical expression and physical ability has no direct or 

    indirect connection to the work of Charles Darwin who is credited 

    for developing the theory of evolution.

E. None of the above.

Answer: A

3.In the ancient world–as it is in the modern world–survival of an 

individual, community, or nation depended in part on

A. physical prowess – physical fitness of the inhabitants.

B. highly skilled and disciplined warriors and soldiers.

C. a physical education program that provided instruction in 

    traditional military skills such as endurance running, 

    wrestling, and swimming to name a few.

D. holding athletic competitions that highlighted “combat sports” 

    such as the javelin throw, foot races, archery, and boxing.

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

4.According to Johan Huizinga, the author of Homo Ludens (loosely 

translated as meaning “Man the Player”), the reason that humans engage 

in play and related activities is because it is

A. enjoyable and fun

B. the one activity that separates humans from animals.

C. deeply religious and therefore provides meaning to life.

D. All of the above.

E. None of the above.

Answer: A

5.The Sumerians 

A. inhabited an area in the ancient world known as Mesopotamia which

    today is known as Iraq.

B. developed cuneiform writing over 5,000 years ago which 

    revolutionized the way people communicated.

C. developed an intricate political and economic system.

D. engaged in warfare as did most of the other political entities during 

    this time.

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

6.The “athletic” Sumerian king who is thought to have ruled during the 

twenty-seventh century B.C. was

A. Heracles.

B. Gilgamesh.

C. David.

D. Malimesh the Great.

E. None of the above.

Answer: B

7.The Assyrian warrior-king Assurbanipal

A. was known to lead his troops into battle.

B. was a superb hunter.

C. was honored with odes and citations that demonstrated that in the 

    ancient world, there was a strong connection between sport and 


D. claimed to have personally killed 1,000 lions.

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

8.Archeologists excavating the ancient city of Sumer have learned that

A. artifacts uncovered during the Early Dynastic period of Sumerian

    civilization (3000-1500 B.C.) provide evidence that sports and games

    were played.

B. combat sports such as boxing and wrestling date from around 2,000 B.C.

C. the Sumerians enjoyed fishing and boating.

D. the Sumerians enjoyed playing board games and children played with

toy chariots and boats.

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

9.Archeological evidence reveals that the Sumerians had two different views about the value or worth of the body.

AKings married a goddess each year to insure that their time on earth was of “godlike” quality and so everything about them, including their body and physical attributes had value.

B             Ordinary people who lived in Sumer had little if any value so their body and whatever

      physical attributes they possessed were meaningless.

CThe Sumerians were heavily influenced by Greek thought and culture and held the 

body in high esteem and featured it – the human body — in their art.

DThe Sumerians believed that the body and attendant physical ability were essential elements in their culture and encouraged ordinary people to excel in athletic contests.

E.   A and B only.

Answer: E 


A. traces its origins back almost 2,000 years ago where it was a

    small village along the Red Sea.

B. had monarchs that engaged in sporting activities in order to present

    themselves to the people as powerful and capable rulers.

C. Egyptian monarchs ideally were able to demonstrate their ability as

    an athlete, warrior, and hunter.

D. B and C only.

E. All of the above.

Answer: D

11.The Egyptians were known in the ancient world to 

A. have built grand palaces, streets, and monuments which were among

    the grandest in the land.

B. quite possibly developed the science of medicine.

C. have a social structure that included the wealthy, common citizens, 

    and slaves.

D. be superb warriors.

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

12.Archeologists know that the Egyptians

A. enjoyed participating in sporting activities because of the countless 

    artifacts that have been discovered as well as the paintings that were 

    found in tombs

B. believed in “life after death” and members of the nobility and the 

    wealthy who were able to construct magnificent tombs were buried 

    with those items that were to give them pleasure and comfort in the 

    next life. Among these items were sporting implements.

C. were pagans who did not worship any god or gods and as a result, 

    found no use for physical expression or a need for sports.

D. A and B only.

E. None of the above.

Answer: D

13.Wealthy Egyptians

A. enjoyed boating on the Mississippi River.

B. flogging slaves in the market

C. enjoyed swimming in their own swimming pools at home.

D. All of the above.

E. None of the Above.

Answer: C

14.In ancient Egypt

A. the demand for physical labor was never-ending.

B. life was harsh and difficult away from the large cities. 

C. individual survival depended in large part on physical fitness, health,

    and luck.

D. festivals and religious observation provided a break from the harsh 

           physical demands of farming and fishing.

E. All of the Above.

Answer: E

15.The Egyptians had a reputation

A. as superb warriors.

B. for being able to mobile the entire population to serve as slaves.

C. for their humanitarian methods of training their soldiers.

D. for using women and children as front line soldiers.

E. All of the above.

Answer: A

16.Young Egyptian men of the aristocracy

A. enlisted as foot soldiers rather than in the chariot corps.

B. were placed in the barracks where they were physically beaten.

C. became proficient as archers so they would be among the last to

    to face the enemy.

D. A and C only.

E. None of the Above.

Answer: E

17.As far as recreational activities, the Egyptians enjoyed

A. Greek wrestling, especially the Pancration.

B. organized rowing contests on the Ganges River.

C. music, singing, and dancing.

D. All of the Above.

E. None of the Above.

Answer: C

18. Many Egyptian Pharaohs took an active part in what festival that featured physical fitness and athletic ability?

AAncient Cairo Festival of Athletic Supremacy

      B Festival to honor the Nile God Shiva

    C The Heb Sed Festival

    D. The Sports Festival at Karnak

      E The Olympic Games in Greece

Answer: C

19. The Pharos Seti and Ramses

A.        Were able to eventually defeat Moses and celebrated by establishing funeral games

                    that featured athletic competitions and feats of strength.

      B. Eventually were defeated by Moses and granted Moses and the Israelites their freedom

C.         Are depicted as athletes on the mural paintings in their tombs

       D.         B and C only

       E. None of the above

Answer: D

  20.Historically, China

A. dates from the beginning of the Christian era – circa 46 A.D.

B. enjoyed organized sports that began in 618 A.D.

C. never achieved a standard of living remotely close to that enjoyed in the West.

D. All of the above.

E. None of the above.

Answer: E

21.In China

A. physical culture has been traced as far back as Peking Man, who lived 

    over 500,000 years ago.

B. there is strong evidence that the ancient Chinese were swift 

    runners and good hunters.

C. cave paintings exist that are over 3,000 years old and depict dancing and other

    physical activities.

D. a dance was developed in ancient times that was used to treat 

    diseases of the legs and feet .

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

22.Which of the following is true? The Chinese

A. trained knights to drive chariots.

B. Chinese chariots were solidly built but lacked ornamentation.

C. sent the chariots racing into battle after the infantry attacked.

D. relied heavily of women to drive the chariots so the men could

    be used in the infantry.

E. None of the above.

Answer: A

23.Chinese serving in the infantry

A. would depend upon their prowess as an athlete, luck, and 

    skill in using the weapons of war to survive.

B. enjoyed a position of honor, especially if they were drawn from the 

    ranks of the “ordinary population” because it was a sign of devotion.

C. were almost always spared when captured by the enemy because of  their special status.

D. All of the above.

E. None of the above.

Answer: A

24.In China

A. women who danced were not as highly valued as they were in Egypt.

B. hunting was not a popular pastime.

C. the ruler Shih Hu was a superb hunter and archer, and 

    maintained an entire battalion of women soldiers who were clothed in 

    furs and carried bows that were painted yellow.

D. the wealthy lived in houses that were equipped with baths, heaters, 

    mechanical fans and rooms that were cooled using ice.

E. C and D only.

Answer: E

25.The Chinese

A. enjoyed the sport of boxing.

B. developed martial arts which was the result of Chinese philosophy

    and the need to train skilled warriors.

C. played a form of football.

D. watched men and women aristocrats play polo during the T’ang and Dynasties.

E. All of the above.

Answer: E

26.Which of the following is true?

in approximately A.D. 1070, a boxing teacher named Chio Yaun Shang Jen incorporated 170   

     movements into boxing.

A.Chio Yaun Shang Jen wrote a set of training rules for boxers.

B.according to Chio Yaun Shang Jen, a good boxer would follow a vegetarian diet, become self-disciplined, and control his sexual urges.

C.all of the above.

D.A and B only.

Answer: D

27.Which of the following is false? The ancient Chinese

A.identified ten types of military skills.

B.the ten military skills reflected the various elements of yin and yang, the positive and negative forces that the Chinese believe exist in nature.

C.over time, the martial arts incorporated jingluoxue, which was the science of 

attending to the main and collateral channels found in the body and became the 

mainstay of Chinese medicine.

D.A and B .

E.none of the above.

Answer: D

28. Which of the following is true?

A.the “perfect circle,” in the form of a ball, is at the core of some of the most contested 

     athletic competitions in both the ancient and modern world.

B.as a cultural mainstay, ballgames were very popular in antiquity.

C.in Mesoamerica, a ball game known as ulama was a cultural and religious experience for spectators, religious leaders, and athletes.

D.Mesoamerica is a term used to distinguish the inhabitants of a particular part of the Americas from the Indians  who lived in neighboring areas.

E.All of the above.

Answer: E

29. In regard to ulama, which of the following is true?

A.it was played with a ball made of animal skin that was stuffed with fine sand.

Bteams were chosen by female priestess who selected males between the ages of 16 and 26.

C.each team had 8 athletes.

D.teams were assigned certain colors that would enable the fans to identify athletes with particular teams.

E.None of the above.

Answer: E

30. Ulama was

A.played with a rubber ball

B.played by the Olmecs beginning around 1800 B.C.

C.played by the pre-Columbian Maya’s, the Totonacs, and the Aztecs.

D.All of the above.

E.B and C only. 

        Answer: D

31.In regard to ulama, which of the following is true?

A.the game must have been very fast because of the composition of the ball.

B.may have been the precursor to the modern game of jai alai which is very popular in Mexico and Central America today.

C.when Columbus sailed to the Americas, he watched a ball game that was being played on an island in the  Caribbean that utilized a rubber ball.

D.when Columbus sailed back to Spain, he returned with a rubber ball which nobody in Europe had ever  seen before.

E.All of the above.

Answer: E

32.In Mesoamerica, which of the following is false?

A. ball games were played on fields and ball courts that date from as far back as 1500 B.C.

B.ball games were played using skulls attached to sticks to strike the ball as well as athletes using their head and feet to propel  the ball in a similar way that modern soccer players do.

                  C. The archeological site of Chichen Itza in Southern Mexico contains a large intact                        tlachtmalacatl (ball court) with a stone ring attached to the wall that served as a goa

                  D. Ulama was a competitive ball game that had strong religious overtones. 

E All of the above

  Answer: B


33. Ulama was associated withhuman sacrifice.

A. True

B. False

Answer: A


34. The ball court in Chichen Itza, archeological evidence indicates that there were ritual beheadings of athletes who played ulama.

A. True

B. False

Answer: A

35. Interpretation of the archeological evidence at the Casa Colorada ball court in Chichen Itza suggests that the captain of the winning team in the ulama competition might beheaded as the ultimate blood sacrifice to the gods. The entire winning team could also loose their heads as the ultimate sacrifice as well. 

A. True

B. False

Answer: A 

36. The Mayas who played ulama used a bat similar to that used in modern day baseball to hit the ball through the stone ring.



Answer: B

37. The Spanish explorer, Hernando Cortes, watched the natives of Mesoamerica playing ulama and was so fascinated by the game and their athletic ability of the athletes that he took them back to Spain where they demonstrated the sport at the court of King Charles V in 1528.

A. True

B. False

     Answer: A


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