Test Bank For A Gift of Fire Social Legal and Ethical Issues for Computing Technology 4th Edition
1. Explain the difference between deontological theories of ethics and utilitarian theories of ethics.
2. Explain the difference between negative rights and positive rights.
1. Explain why the United States has historically placed less value than the European Union on the right to privacy.
2. Describe three of the Fair Information Principles.
1. a. Summarize the Child Online Protection Act (COPA) and the Children’s Internet Protection Act (CIPA).
b. Discuss at least three differences between COPA and CIPA?
c. What impact would COPA have had on freedom of speech on the Internet? Why was COPA overturned by the courts?
2. The oral arguments before the Supreme Court concerning the Communications Decency Act (CDA) focused extensively on determining the most appropriate analogy for cyberspace. Arguments were presented that compared the Internet to a library, to television, and to a public place such as a street corner or park.
a. Why are these comparisons important? Briefly explain the differences between libraries, television, and public places with respect to First Amendment protection.
b. For each of these three analogies (library, television, and public place), describe one significant way in which the Internet is similar and one significant way in which it is different. Explain the relevance of each of these similarities and differences to the issue of regulation of the Internet.
3. In 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the ban on virtual child pornography. Explain two arguments in support of striking the ban. Explain two arguments against striking the ban.
4. Explain how Google’s experience in China relates to the issue of global censorship.
1. a. How are the Napster and Grokster copyright cases similar, and how are they different?
b. Briefly describe the court’s ruling in both the Napster and Grokster cases.
2. a. Explain the two main provisions of the DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act).
b. Explain how “take-down” notices work and who they protect from lawsuits.
c. How do “take-down” notices sometimes infringe on “fair use”?
1. a. Briefly define identity theft.
b. Describe two techniques criminals can use to gather the information they need to steal an identity.
c. Describe two ways a person can protect their identity.
d. Describe two ways a business can protect its customers from identity thieves.
2. In the context of Internet content that some countries prohibit, discuss how the “responsibility to prevent access” differs from the “authority to prevent entry”. Include examples.
1. a. Give two examples of job categories for which the increased productivity of computer systems strongly reduced the number of people working in those areas.
b. Give an example of an area in which computer technology reduces jobs for skilled workers. Give an example of how computer technology enables people with less skill and/or training to do jobs that used to require more. Explain how computer technology changed the skill level required for these jobs.
c. Give two examples of jobs that did not exist before the Internet.
2. Explain the ethical and social implications of “offshoring”. Consider the issue from the perspective of both U.S. employees and foreign employees. Consider the issue from the perspective of companies hiring foreign workers.
1. Give three Neo-Luddite criticisms of technology? Provide one counter-argument for each.
2. a. What are the three questions one should ask when evaluating a computer model?
b. What might cause a computer model to inaccurately reflect a real-world scenario?
1. Some people have proposed establishing legal standards and regulations to govern safety-critical computer-based systems.
a. Give and explain a few of the best arguments for and against such a proposal (at least two on each side). Give counter-arguments against the arguments for each side.
Note: the “counter-arguments” you are asked to give should oppose or answer the arguments on the other side as directly and convincingly as possible. They should not be simply unrelated arguments on the opposite side of the issue.
b. Describe two provisions that may be included in such regulations. How effective do you feel each provision would be?
2. a. Describe the role the manufacturer, the hospitals/clinics, and the programmer each played in the Therac-25 radiation overdose incidents.
b. Briefly describe how professional techniques for increasing reliability and safety could have prevented the problems.
3. a. Briefly describe the major factors that contributed to the failure of each of the following: the Denver Airport baggage system failure, the Ariane 5 rocket malfunction, and an A320 Airbus crash.
b.Briefly describe how professional techniques for increasing reliability and safety could have prevented these failures.
Chapters 1 – 9
1. Choose two issues/topics covered this semester. For each of the two topics:
a. Describe each issue/topic, giving a brief history (no more than a paragraph).
b. Give at least two arguments on each side of the issue/topic (at least four arguments total).
c. What suggestions do you have for resolving this issue/topic, or why do you think the issue/topic cannot be resolved? Explain your answer.
Remember to answer all three questions for each of the two issues/topics.
2. For the following scenario, identify at least 3 stakeholders. List at least 2 possible actions. How would each possible action affect each of the 3 stakeholders (give at least one possible consequence for each stakeholder and each possible actions – 6 total)? Which action would you take? Why?
You are the lead programmer on a new software product. You work for a small, privately owned software company that has had only limited success in the past. There is nothing else on the market similar to the new software you are developing. The software is just entering the testing stage, which is estimated to take approximately 10-12 months. The scheduled release date is 14 months from now. You and the other developers have been working long hours, 60 hours a week, and earning a relatively low salary. The entire development team will be sharing in the profits once the new software is launched. The owner has just returned from an industry tradeshow, and has learned about a consumer tradeshow that would be perfect for launching the new product. The project manager meets with you and the other developers on the team and tells you that the owner is very excited and determined to release the product at the consumer show, which is only 4 months away. It will take at least 2 months to prepare the marketing and packaging for the product. You are told you have 2 months to test and fix any problems.