Accounting Information System 12th edition Romney Solution Manual

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Accounting Information System 12th edition Romney Solution Manual

CHAPTER 2
OVERVIEW OF BUSINESS PROCESSES SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS

  1. 2.1  Table 2-1 lists some of the documents used in the revenue, expenditure, and human resources cycle. What kinds of input or output documents or forms would you find in the production (or conversion) cycle?

    Students will not know the names of the documents but they should be able to identify the tasks about which information needs to be gathered. Here are some of those tasks:

    • ·  Requests for items to be produced
    • ·  Documents to plan production
    • ·  Schedule of items to be produced
    • ·  List of items produced, including quantity and quality
    • ·  Form to allocate costs to products
    • ·  Form to collect time spent on production jobs
    • ·  Form requesting raw materials for production process
    • ·  Documents showing how much raw materials are on hand
    • ·  Documents showing how much raw materials went into production
    • ·  List of production processes
    • ·  List of items needed to produce each product
    • ·  Documents to control movement of goods from one location to another
  2. 2.2  With respect to the data processing cycle, explain the phrase “garbage in, garbage out.” How can you prevent this from happening?

    When garbage, defined as errors, is allowed into a system that error is processed and the resultant erroneous (garbage) data stored. The stored data at some point will become output. Thus, the phrase garbage in, garbage out. Data errors are even more problematic in ERP systems because the error can affect many more applications than an error in a non- integrated database.

    Companies go to great lengths to make sure that errors are not entered into a system. To prevent data input errors:

    • ·  Data captured on source documents and keyed into the system are edited by the computer to detect and correct errors and critical data is sometimes double keyed.
    • ·  Companies use turnaround documents to avoid the keying process.
    • ·  Companies use source data automation devices to capture data electronically to avoid

      manual data entry with its attendant errors.

    • ·  Well-designed documents and screens improve accuracy and completeness by

      providing instructions or prompts about what data to collect, grouping logically related pieces of information close together, using check off boxes or pull-down menus to

2-1

Ch. 2: Overview of Business Processes

present the available options, and using appropriate shading and borders to clearly

separate data items.

  • ·  Data input screens are preformatted to list all the data the user needs to enter.
  • ·  Prenumbered source documents are used or the system automatically assigns a

    sequential number to each new transaction. This simplifies verifying that all

    transactions have been recorded and that none of the documents has been misplaced.

  • ·  The system is programmed to make sure company policies are followed, such as

    approving or verifying a transaction. For example, the system can be programmed to check a customer’s credit limit and payment history, as well as inventory status, before confirming a sale to a customer.

  1. 2.3  What kinds of documents are most likely to be turnaround documents? Do an internet search to find the answer and to find example turnaround documents.

    Documents that are commonly used as turnaround documents include the following:

    · Utility bills
    · Meter cards for collecting readings from gas meters, photocopiers, water meters etc · Subscription renewal notices
    · Inventory stock cards
    · Invoices
    · Checks (banks encode account info on the bottom of checks)
    · Annual emissions inventory forms

    (http://www.deq.state.ok.us/aqdnew/Emissions/TurnAroundDocs.htm) · Adult Literary Information and Evaluation System forms

    (http://www.lacnyc.org/ALIES/tech_support/manual/Section4Chapter2.pdf)

    Students will find many other turnaround documents.

    Here are some URLs for turnaround document definitions and examples:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turnaround_document http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=turnaround+document&i=53248,00.asp http://www.answers.com/topic/turnaround-document-1

    Here are some turnaround document images (1 long URL):

    http://images.google.com/images?q=turnaround+document&oe=utf-8&rls=org.mozilla:en- US:official&client=firefox-a&um=1&ie=UTF- 8&ei=N7yBSpbAF4KiswO39JnwCA&sa=X&oi=image_result_group&ct=title&resnum=4

  2. 2.4  The data processing cycle in Figure 2-1 is an example of a basic process found throughout nature. Relate the basic input/process/store/output model to the functions of the human body.

    There are a number of ways to relate the input/process/store/output model to the human 2-2

body. Here are a few of them

  • ·  Brain. We read, see, hear, and feel things. We process that input in order to understand what it is and how it relates to us. We store that data in our brains and then process it again in order to produce solve problems, make decisions, etc., which represent output.
  • ·  Stomach. We take food in as input. It is processed to produce energy to fuel all bodily functions. If we eat more food than the body needs at any one time it is stored as fat. The output is walking, talking, thinking – all functions fueled by the energy produced. Human waste is also an output of that process.

    Students will come up with other examples of how the input/process/store/output model applies to the human body

2.5 Some individuals argue that accountants should focus on producing financial statements and leave the design and production of managerial reports to information systems specialists. What are the advantages and disadvantages of following this advice? To what extent should accountants be involved in producing reports that include more than just financial measures of performance? Why?

There are no advantages to accountants focusing only on financial information. Both the accountant and the organization would suffer if this occurred. Moreover, it would be very costly to have two systems rather than one that captures and processes operational facts at the same time as it captures and reports financial facts.

The main disadvantage of this is that accountants would ignore much relevant information about the organization’s activities. To the extent that such nonfinancial information (e.g., market share, customer satisfaction, measures of quality, etc.) is important to management, the value of the accounting function would decline. Moreover, accountants have been trained in how to design systems to maximize the reliability of the information produced.
If relevant information is not produced by the AIS, there is danger that the information may be unreliable because the people responsible for its production have not been trained in, or adequately aware of, the potential threats to reliability and the best measures for dealing with those threats.

2-3

Accounting Information Systems

Ch. 2: Overview of Business Processes

SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO THE PROBLEMS

2.1 The chart of accounts must be tailored to an organization’s specific needs. Discuss how the chart of accounts for the following organizations would differ from the one presented for S&S in Table 2-2.

Some of the changes in the chart of accounts for each type of entity include the following:

  1. University
    • ·  No equity or summary drawing accounts. Instead, have a fund balances section for each type of fund.
    • ·  Several types of funds, with a separate chart of accounts for each. The current fund is used for operating expenses, but not capital expenditures. Loan funds are used to account for scholarships and loans. Endowment funds are used to account for resources obtained from specific donors, generally with the objective that principal be preserved and that income be used for a specific purpose. Plant funds are used for major capital expenditures. Most fund categories would be further divided into restricted and unrestricted categories.
    • ·  Unlikely to have Notes Receivable, but may have Accounts Receivable for students who pay tuition in installment payments.
    • ·  Tuition and fees would be one source of revenue. Others include gifts, investment income, sales of services, and, for public universities, state appropriations.
    • ·  Student loans are an asset; student deposits are a liability.
  2. Bank
    • ·  Loans to customers would be an asset, some current others noncurrent, depending upon the length of the loan.
    • ·  No inventory
    • ·  Customer accounts would be liabilities.
    • ·  Classification of revenue would be among loans, investments, service charges, etc.
    • ·  No cost of goods sold.
  3. Government Unit
    • ·  No equity or summary drawing accounts. Instead, have fund balances.
    • ·  Balance sheet shows two major categories: (1) assets and (2) liabilities and fund equity.

2-4

  • ·  Separate chart of accounts for each fund (general fund, special revenue fund, capital projects fund, and debt service fund).
  • ·  Revenue and expenditure accounts would be grouped by purpose (e.g., police, highways, sanitation, education, etc.).
  • ·  Encumbrance accounts
  • ·  Revenues would include taxes, licenses and permits, fines, and charges for

    specific services.

  • ·  Taxes receivable as a separate category due to importance.
  • ·  No cost of goods sold.
  1. Manufacturing Company
    • ·  Several types of inventory accounts (raw materials, work-in-process, and finished

      goods).

    • ·  Additional digits to code revenues and expenses by products and to code assets/liabilities by divisions.
  2. Expansion of S&S

· Additional digits to code:

  • –  Revenues and expenses by products and by stores
  • –  Assets/liabilities by stores.

2-5

Accounting Information Systems

Ch. 2: Overview of Business Processes

2.2 Design a chart of accounts for SDC. Explain how you structured the chart of accounts to meet the company’s needs and operating characteristics. Keep total account code length to a minimum, while still satisfying all of Mace’s desires.

(Adapted from the CMA Exam) A six-digit code (represented by letters ABCDEF) is sufficient to meet SDC’s needs:

  1. A  This digit identifies the 4 divisions plus the corporate office. One digit can accommodate up to 9 different divisions, assuming that no division would be zero. Thus, the number of divisions would have to more than double before the chart of accounts would have to be revised.
  2. B  This digit represents major account types (asset, liability, equity, revenue, expense). There are only 6 categories, so one digit is sufficient.
  3. C  This digit represents the major classification within account type:
    • ·  For balance sheet accounts, this represents specific sub-categories (current assets, plant and equipment, etc.), as only six categories are needed.
    • ·  For expense and revenue accounts, this digit represents the product group, as again there are only five products plus general costs.
  4. D  This digit represents specific accounts or cost centers:
    • ·  For balance sheet accounts, this is the control account; one digit is adequate because the problem says no more than 10 categories.
    • ·  For expense accounts, this is the cost center; one digit is adequate because the problem indicates no more than 6 cost centers.

      EF These two digits represent the subsidiary accounts and natural expense categories:

    • ·  For expense accounts, these represent the 56 natural expense categories and variances for each cost center.
    • ·  For the balance sheet, these two digits accommodate up to 100 subsidiary accounts.

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